The book is the result of my two academic interests. On a professional level I have too often found that there is a lot of misleading information being dished out on the reasons behind some of the most high profile cyber attacks. Both the media and the so called security experts end up in a blame game without factual evidence or a clear understanding of what lies behind the obvious. My research focuses on proposing a model for Cyber Criminal Psychology & Profiling that incorporates multiple intelligence, Interviewing Techniques, Cyber Criminal Psychology, Cyber forensics and Offender Profiling. The traditional model of offender profiling does not incorporate the human side of the profiler nor the offender. A better profile of a Cyber-Criminal will help in speeding up the investigation process and ensuring better identification of the Cyber-Criminal.

On a personal level, especially after going through a traumatic cancer struggle, I have found that people around me are missing vital things in life. Some out of ignorance and some out of misinterpretation of facts.

The book is a collection of 31 articles, which took almost three years of constant effort. The book is split into five chapters, each representing a unique theme, each with multiple articles of interest. Chapter 1 focuses on Cyber Forensics, Chapter 2 on Profiling, Chapter 3 on Interview Techniques, Chapter 4 on Forensics Psychology and Chapter 5 on Multiple Intelligences. Although the chapters are in a certain order, each article can be read on its own in any order.

The one thing I learnt in preparing the articles is how valuable knowledge of the self and surroundings are in figuring out better solutions for oneself and in the workplace. I hope you enjoy reading these articles as much as I enjoyed writing them. I also hope you find them useful.





Using Projective Tests have become quite common in Forensic Psychology. This paper reflects upon the role of Projective Tests within Forensics Psychology as a tool to decode criminal behaviour.


Forensic Psychology is the branch of science that provides a clear meeting point between law and human behaviour (Ioannou, Canter, Youngs, & Synnott, 2015). It entails measuring critical legal practices, especially the one pertaining to professional witness and testimony within the context of the investigation. The most significant and interesting issue within Forensic Psychology is the ability of witness to provide a clear and error-free testimony in the courtroom concerning the incidence, information that can be verified to be legally correct. In order to have a non-doubtful testimony, the Forensic Psychologist must possess a deeper know-how about rules and regulations regarding the legal system and be able to comprehend them inside out. In other words, they must comprehend the entire judicial system.

A trained Forensic Psychologist is confident in providing quality testimony that avoids confusion in the courtrooms. Costanzo (2013) points out that Forensic Psychologists are specialists in human behaviour. Neuropsychologists, specialists in the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours, are required by courtrooms to discuss issues relating to the brain and human behaviour. They may further be used to discern whether an individual is proficient in the trial.

Neal (2016) indicates that most of the queries asked by Forensic Psychologists are connected to the legal system and the answers are in a language that can be understood by everyone in the court. It is always advisable for any Forensic Psychologist to ensure that he or she is able to translate the information from a psychological perspective to a courtroom perspective. This will ensure that the case gets the treatment it deserves.

According to Costanzo (2013), Forensic Psychologists are resourceful personnel who uphold dignity in their practices. They are called upon to train other people in the various fields of the profession. They work with police departments to ensure criminal issues are dealt with in a manner that is legally clear. Interestingly, they help in the judicial selection of personnel in the United States of America.

In addition, Forensic Psychologists aid in enacting laws. They are trained to ensure they can fully handle behaviours of the victims of crisis and suicidal practices. They also offer counselling to affected families (Ioannou, Canter, Youngs, & Synnott, 2015).


A Projective Test is a personality test aimed at letting individuals respond to unclear stimuli, internal conflicts and presumably examining in-depth emotions displayed by the individual (Bornstein, 2007). It is in contrary to a self-report test or an objective test that is linked to a structured method as responses are evaluated about presumed common standards, for instance, an exam with multiple choices. Similarly, they are restricted to the exam details. The answers to the predicted test are detailed for a reason as opposed to the basis of presumptions on the meaning, for instance, in the objective analysis. Projective Tests originate from psychoanalysis, which states that people have unconscious motivations as well as attitudes that are beyond their conscious awareness.

The Austrian neurologist, Sigmund Freud, is known as the founder of psychoanalysis, which is based on a dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was also well known for his analysis on psychosexual development of an individual (Patel, 2013). Freudian psychology emphasized the importance of understanding unconscious information as a predictor of our everyday behaviour. He came up with the concept projecting one’s own unconscious onto a person or object (AllPsych, 2018).

According to Miller (2015), the essential theoretical basis in Projective Test relates to given questions raised; the responses will be consciously stipulated as well as socially tested. The answers are not linked to the unconsciousness of the respondent or the implicit motivations or views. The respondent’s in-depth motives are not necessarily recognized as conscious by the respondent, or he/ she may be unable to express themselves verbally or in an appropriate structure as guided by the interviewer. Advocates of the Projective Test emphasize that the uncertainty of provocations given in the test enables subjects to give out their hidden thoughts that fail to be captured by other tests. From the 1980s to the 1990s, research conducted has shown that implicit motivation is reflected in the increased use of tools linked to the research.

Rorschach Inkblot is a widely known Projective Test established in 1921 to aid diagnosis of schizophrenia (Hatano, Yamada, Nakagawa, Nanri, Kawase, & Kenji, 2014). The subjects’ perceptions of inkblots are recorded and analysed using psychological interpretation or even algorithms. The reactions are then evaluated in many ways by considering not only the information given but also the duration it took before a response is made. Other variables considered are – how the given response compares to other people’s perceptions for similar drawing, and lastly, the aspect of the picture and how it was focused. Experts are consulted to conduct Projective Test like Rorschach Test in coming up with consistent and valid outcomes.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is identified as a critical Projective Test in which a person evaluates unclear events of others, and he or she is interviewed to narrate some aspects of the scene, for instance, what caused the scene, what are the feelings of the people and what are the possible outcomes. The above process assesses the subject’s descriptions while discovering their motivations, conflicts, as well as outlooks. Researchers may employ scoring systems aimed to establish a reliable methodology of expressed thoughts in addition to behaviours.

The Szondi test is a nonverbal projective personality test developed by Léopold Szondi. Szondi lists eight human drive needs that are linked to action. A Szondi test involves showing facial photographs to a person, the photographs are displayed in six groups of eight each. The subject is asked to select the most appealing and most repulsive photos in each group. The selection provides an indication of the satisfied and unsatisfied needs of the subject’s personality (Zaffaroni & Oliveir, 2013).

To sum up, Projective Test relates to the respondent’s perceptions, answers, motivations and unconsciousness attitudes (Cariola, 2014).


According to Sloane (1992), behavioural analysis is the science that relates to the way a person or animal conducts oneself, to his surroundings and to others. Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer (1991) defined it as an organized study of variables influencing the behavioural patterns of the organisms. Behaviour Analyst Certification Board (2017) on the other hand, said that behavioural analysis is a scientific study focusing on the principles of learning and behaviour.

The study aims to provide understanding, give explanation, classification and prediction on the behaviour. This science of behavioural analysis is not similar to other areas of psychological studies or fields that attempts to dissect behaviour (Sloane, 1992). The science of behavioural analysis is commonly used in detecting mental aptitude, undertaking behavioural assessments, determining appropriate treatment plans for mental patients, training practitioners and as well as in crime investigations (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017).

In the study of behavioural analysis, there were two primary and distinct fields of study that came into existence and these are the experimental analysis of behaviour and applied behaviour analysis. The experimental analysis of behavioural analysis is the scientific foundation of the discipline in which various empirical studies, research, literatures and data on behavioural analysis had been accumulated over the years in the furtherance of the understanding of this science. It is where the applied behavioural analysis came about. (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017)

Applied behavioural analysis is a methodical approach that aims to influence the established vital social behaviour by identifying relevant and similar environmental variables thereby producing a significant behavioural change as a result of the usage of such findings (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017). The latter aspect of behavioural analysis comes into play when it is conducted in a real-world setting with raw and unadulterated subject study rather that conducting it in laboratories (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968).


Emotional Intelligence (EQ) as a concept was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990) as a kind of social intelligence, distinct from general intelligence. It refers to the capacity to track one’s personal emotions and that of others, distinguish between them and make use of this information as a reference for one’s behaviour, actions or views. EQ was soon extended to include an individual’s capacity to accurately perceive, assess and express emotions; the capacity to understand and appreciate emotions; and the capacity to regulate these emotions in order to spur emotional, as well as intellectual, development (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). From this, one can see that the concept had evolved through time to encompass many emotional facets, as well as their relationship with other forms of human intelligence. Given this extensive definition, there is no question that EQ can play a pivotal role in the behaviour, perceptions and dispositions of individuals within organisations and as professionals and employees. There are many measures to assess a person’s EQ reflecting the differences among academics and experts on how EQ is treated and analysed. Among these tests are Emotional Quotient Inventory or the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test and the Mayer-Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Harms & Crede, 2010).

The novelty of the idea behind EQ made it an interesting subject of inquiry in the field of management and organisational studies. Due to the far reaching coverage and implications of EQ for organisations across industries and nature of work, many scholars and researchers had attempted to study EQ in an attempt to better understand its dynamics and how it can be harnessed by organisations to their advantage. Goleman (1998) popularised the concept of EQ initially espoused by Salovey and Mayer (1990). He came to define the concept as the ability to recognise one’s feelings and that of others to motivate one’s self and to manage these emotions personally and in the course of one’s interaction with others. He formulated a theory on EQ that is directly tied to performance since he believes that EQ has direct bearing in work and organisational effectiveness, in particular in forecasting performance in different activities from sales to top leadership (Goleman, 1998).

Bar-On (1997) defined EQ as an umbrella concept comprising non-cognitive abilities and competencies which aid one in overcoming environmental pressures and demands. He advanced a model of non-cognitive intelligences made up of five broad areas from the personality domain, including intra-personal and inter-personal capacities, ability to adapt, stress management and general mood, such as happiness and optimism. On the part of companies, this illustrates relevance of managing and tapping the EQ of their personnel. Because these domains have a bearing on the outlook of employees and how they will respond to the demands of work, as well as changes within organisations, interest in EQ heightened.

While there are people who have a higher innate emotional quotient than others, EQ skills can be learned and honed through steady commitment, dedication and practice. For this to happen, one must have a sustained drive to learn, obtain relevant feedback and continuously buttress their EQ abilities (Serrat, 2009). Indeed, EQ is becoming a new benchmark or yardstick by which employees and prospective candidates for new posts are assessed. People are not just rated for their intelligence, training, work experience, and industry expertise, but also for their ability to handle and manage their emotions within themselves and in the course of their interaction with their co-workers (Serrat, 2009).

While studies on the implications of EQ in various sectors, such as health, education and clinical psychology, had been made, EQ’s applications on the workplace generated the greatest amount of inquiry (Jordan, Ashkanasy, & Ascough, 2007). This can be attributed to the desire on the part of organisations to search for new ways to enhance performance, as well as the growing desire of managers to be able to forecast or assess the behaviour of their subordinates in the actual work setting (Jordan, et al, 2007). The promising benefits and advantages offered by EQ, therefore, attracted the attention of many companies and organisations.

It would be in the great interest of organisations to tap into their employees’ EQ and marshal this tremendous force to advance their company’s well being. Improved sales, enhanced recruitment and retention of highly qualified and competent staff and more effective leadership are among the promises of EQ (Serrat, 2009). Therefore, possessing a great degree of EQ proves to be a great advantage. Weisinger (1998) pointed out that people with high EQ levels are said to enjoy more success in their chosen careers. In turn, this idea of self-fulfilment, happiness and contentment with one’s work is a great motivating factor for employees to excel in their work. Jordan et al (2002) noted that such people also experience less job insecurity compared to those with lower EQ levels. This job insecurity would then act as a de-motivator, contributing to the subpar performance of affected personnel. Jordan et al (2002) also found out that an employee’s commitment to an organisation is moderated by his or her emotional intelligence; hence those with high EQ are more likely to have high affective commitment even at times of extreme work pressure or stress. EQ was also revealed to be positively connected with altruism, job commitment and satisfaction and affective organisational commitment (Carmeli, 2003). Carmeli (2003) also maintained that EQ can improve contextual performance and reduce distress allowing employees to think and act in a more emotionally intelligent manner. Wong and Law (2002) supported the claim of a positive linkage between EQ and organisational commitment and added that EQ can mitigate turnover intention of subordinates. EQ aids in organisational effectiveness not only through enhanced work commitment, but also through boosting morale, teamwork and improved health (Cherniss, 2001). Thus, it makes sense to say that people with high EQ constitute a pool of worthy and much coveted labour force.

Aside from reinforcing commitment to the profession and the company, EQ also had an effect on inter-personal relationships. It was said that people with greater EQ are more likely to develop harmonious relations with their peers in the workplace (Maslow, 1943). This is because such individuals can recognise, understand and manage their emotions and that of others, enabling them to interact with their colleagues well (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). According to Lopes et al (2005), EQ was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity and pro-social inclinations. The connection between EQ and positive peer nomination, as well as identification of reciprocal friendships, was also established was also established by this study. From this, it can be said that there is a strong case for a linkage between EQ and interpersonal skills and relationship management.

In addition, Slaski and Cartwright (2002) also argued that higher EQ enable individuals to easily adjust to stress, because of their better coping mechanisms (Bar-On, Brown, Kirkcaldy, & Thome, 2000). EQ training was also found to contribute in more positive perceptions of work life quality and reduced distress, aside from increasing morale (Slaski & Cartwright, 2003). This is very important as the demands of work may really exact a toll on employees. Getting people with greater resilience and tolerance to such pressures and demands, as well as having a clear perspective on what is expected of them, is definitely a key strategy in cornering the right human assets for the organisation. Finally, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004), in a meta-analysis study, revealed a positive association between EQ and performance in the workplace, as well as in the school. In terms of team performance, high EQ teams were found to perform at a high level even without training, while teams with low EQ have to undergo specific trainings to attain the same performance level of their high EQ counterparts (Jordan & Troth, 2002). Such an edge can be attributed to the emotional element present in team decision making putting teams with high EQ in a clear advantage (Jordan & Troth, 2004). In another study, it was stated that EQ constitutes a crucial element in customer interaction, especially among service-oriented employees, thus EQ also has bearing on enhancing customer satisfaction experience (Rozell, Pettijohn, & Parker, 2002). Given this, there is no question that the attention EQ is getting from organisations scholars is valid and very much warranted.

Studies also show that people with higher EQ have good conflict resolution competencies. This can partly stem from the assertion that all conflicts are emotional in nature since they involve views of threats or risks to individual or organisational objectives (Jordan & Troth, 2004). Weisinger (1998) pointed out that conflict management and improving relations within organisations require adept emotional management strengths. This makes it imperative for companies to train their managers on EQ so that they will be more equipped in handling tensions or differences among their employees in the workplace. Higher EQ confers on employees a greater capacity to deal with pesky superiors at work through better conflict resolution capabilities (Lubit, 2004). This makes it sensible to develop the EQ not only of managers, but also of employees so that they can better deal with differences they may have with their bosses and so that such conflicts may not stand in the way of them fulfilling their designated duties and responsibilities. When faced by conflict, people with greater EQ are more inclined to adopt collaborative solutions and select not to avoid the issue as collaboration attests to their capacity to appreciate and control their emotions (Jordan & Troth, 2002). In his EQ model, Goleman (2001) included conflict management as one critical competency. This underpins the connection between EQ and conflict resolution. Similarly, in terms of negotiations, people with higher EQ were also found to lay down better positive affective tone from the onset paving the way for integrative resolutions (Foo, Anger Elfenbein, Tan, & Aik, 2004).

While there is much literature on the definition and underpinnings of EQ, as well as its benefits and advantages when applied in the workplace, there are not many studies available on EQ’s impact on Cybercriminal investigation. However, the fact that most of the studies have the general office setup as context may lend credence to the applicability of these researches in Cybercriminal investigation. Besides, the investigation task is packed with demands and pressures and is also emotionally laden given its sensitivity and intricacies, the number of stakeholders involved and the importance of forensic investigation.

Crime scene investigation is a gruelling task that entails a lot of considerations. As such, investigators are exposed to a lot of pressure, intimidation, opposition in their daily lives in the office. This highlights the importance of having a tough EQ on the part of those involved in this delicate job. Competency is not enough as it is essential for investigators to work with people and enjoy the respect of others. The environments where investigators operate are full of emotions from helpful to uncooperative clients to colleagues who may send out negative or positive emotional responses. Emotions are known to affect judgment (Chung, Cohen, & Monroe, 2012). Because investigators perform a very crucial task of identifying and analysing evidence, efforts must be extended to ensure that their work is not compromised, as this would have serious legal, business and regulatory repercussions.


Psychological profiling is mostly used in solving murder cases (Reyes & Wiles, 2007). However, according to Lickiewicz (2011), psychological profiling is also applicable to Cybercrimes. He added that profiling, although not meant to specifically identity the perpetrator, can help narrow down the search area, improve the law enforcement’s future investigation, create better approach or measures in detection and provide familiarity of the perpetrator based on his modus operandi (Lickiewicz, 2011). Gierowski & Najda (2010) pointed out that being able to experience and gather knowledge about such illegal activities would help interpret and analyse the evidence collected. From this, analysis of evidence will enable the authorities in profiling the offender. The analysis of evidence and the modus operandi is an inference on the psychological mind frame, motivation and behaviour of the perpetrator (Grance, Chevalier, & Kent, 2005).

According to Rogers (2006), the offenders of cybercrimes depend on the internet’s capability to cover their identities, thus their actions highly hinge on Anonymity. However, there is no causal connection with their anonymity in the conduct of crimes, modus operandi, motivation or the traces they leave in the scene of the crime (Rogers, 2006). McQuade (2009) added that offenders have their own way of breaking in and committing cybercrime through their own techniques or using applications or software. But because cybercrimes are frequently committed in sequence, there is a high likelihood of identifying the profile of the offender (Arkin, 2001).

Erbschloe (2001) asserted that there is a need to establish profiles of offenders of cybercrimes especially those that are considered to be terrorist attacks in the internet world because these individuals are becoming a serious threat to the security and privacy in the internet. Casey (1999) distinguished the types of investigation in cybercrime cases into two scenarios. One scenario is where the identity of the offender is unknown. The second scenario is where both the crime and offender is identifiable such as the case of child pornography, where the mere possession of such files is considered a crime (Casey, 1999).

According to Rogers (2001), the creation of a profile must first have data analysis in order to synthesize the possible persons to be identified as main suspects. Schell and Martin (2006) posited that the person investigating must be able to define the scale of ability of the offender, his skills and his motive in doing such crime. It is important that in making a profile, it must contain data indicating the possible sites where the offender can be found such as discussion groups, social media or Internet Relay Chat channels. In addition to this, there must be a careful analysis of the victim’s behaviour displayed in the internet and correlate his actions to his attack on the victim. One should also thoroughly analyse a victim’s actions on the Internet and find the reason for the attack on the victim. This way, a more detailed and specific profile is made in order that the offender’s future offense can be predicted and a trap can be set up (Schell & Martin, 2006). Pleskonjić et al (2006) also added that in building up a profile, it would be of immense value to estimate the age of the offender because it will be able to assert his motives, cultural behaviour and goals. Cultural behaviour is a vital element that can be influencing his/ her behaviour and with that, through psycholinguistic methods, his/ her future attacks can be predicted.

Casey (1999) emphasized the importance of profiling the offender and identifying his/ her behaviour and motivations. Doing so could give possible signs and clues of the place where the offender might be. Shaw (2006) suggested that in doing such profiling, there must be a group of experts specializing in security, laws and information technology. Shaw (2006) did not state the need for the participation of psychologists but he stressed that law enforcement agencies must not be involved in the profiling for such profile to be useful.


Despite all the developments in Forensic Psychology, it is still a fairly new area of psychology. The application of psychology in criminal proceedings involves various risks. Forensic Psychologists are therefore required to consider effective tools in identifying known and hidden behavioural characteristics. This has led to the move towards various Projective Psychological Tests described in this paper. Forensic and legal psychology is incomplete without delving into the unknown space of unconscious behaviour.

While forensic departments in certain countries have started using Projective Psychological Tests, there is an inherent risk of subjective interpretations. This is one reason why it has not gained worldwide acceptance. With so little of the unknown human drivers for action known, it is argued that additional information revealed through Projective Tests could prove valuable in certain cases. Forensic Psychology could, therefore, embrace Projective Tests as part of behavioural assessment.

The status of forensic psychology can be increased by quality research and realizing that there are areas in which the contribution of forensic psychologists is questionable (Louw, 2001). There is a huge gap in terms of competence building and knowledge transfer related to the application of Projective Testing in different scenarios. Perhaps relevant authorities could consider training programs and sharing lessons learnt from various investigations.


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Modern educational institutions have imposed an extraordinary importance on scientific learning to improve intelligence. In the search for higher intelligence this paper focuses on alternative methods such as Nutrition, Intermittent Fasting (IF), Meditation and Cold Showers. These have been found to influence human intelligence as well as overall well-being.


What you eat is 85% of being well, while exercising accounts for only 15% of your health (Berg, 2017). Our aim should not be only to lose weight; rather it should be to stay healthy in order to lose weight. It is a popular saying that what you are is what you eat. In this section, the focus is on certain kind of foods and their impact on the human body.

One key area of health is digestion, in which nutrients are taken in and processed, and excretion, where waste is taken out of the body. People should eat food that is easy to digest, in order to promote better assimilation. If the digestion process is not healthy, the results are poor health and disease (, 2018).

Ketogenic Diet (KD) regimen is a diet containing low-carbohydrates, medium-protein and high-fat content. It is argued that maintenance of KD induces, as well as sustains, the body’s ketonic state. It reduces the levels of glucose in the body without leading to malnutrition or caloric restrictions (Zupec-Kania & Spellman, 2009).

A Ketosis Diet constitutes 170-200 gm (3-6 Oz) of fat, medium protein, and 7-10 cups (almost 7-10 Oz) of vegetables with no sugar and no processed carbohydrates (bread, pasta, biscuits, cereals, crackers, etc.), and is advocated to help fight cancer and other chronic diseases. Carbohydrates should be minimized to about 50 grams. Not to mention that Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is strictly out of the diet, just as plastic is not to be eaten by Humans. Berg (2017) emphasises that carbohydrates should be minimized and replaced with healthy fats and moderate protein. Berg (2018) points out that the body recycles its own tissues and so the body does not lose them, but conserves them. The body does not store protein as it stores other nutrients,thus the requirement for protein in the body is less (Berg, 2018).

It has been suggested that ketosis (key-tow-sis) may influence human intelligence. It mimics starvation by putting the body in the ketosis metabolic state. Normally, the human body breaks down carbohydrates into sugar or glucose. This glucose is then transported by the liver, used as energy by the body, or stored in the muscle tissue and liver as glycogen. When the body is deprived of carbohydrates, the only source of glucose supply for body organs comes from the liver. The brain is a greedy organ accounting for about 20 percent of the energy produced by the body. It cannot directly utilize fat for energy, rather it requires it to be converted into ketone to provide energy for normal brain cell metabolism. Ketone supplies increase the number of energy factories or mitochondria in the brain cells. Accordingly, a Ketogenic Diet works to directly inhibit the key source of neuronal stress. Reactive oxygen species are a cellular metabolism by-product. These oxidants are highly reactive because they contain a single electron. They wreck by denaturing proteins. Increased oxidants are the causes of neurodegeneration, stroke and aging. Ketones (that regulate normal cell function) play an important role of enhancing the breakdown of these molecules and inhibiting their production by increasing glutathione peroxidase activity. The low carbohydrate intake also works against the oxidation of glucose. The high fat nature of KD increases the Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) such as Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid (DHA), which are both over-the-counter medications promoted as healthy supplements for the brain. The increase in PUFAs works to minimize inflammation and the production of the oxidant.

Several clinical and animal experimental studies have shown that KDs may enhance cognitive functioning of an individual (Xu et al., 2010; Appelberg et al., 2009). For example, Appelberg et al. (2009) demonstrated that KDs could improve the cognitive recovery and motor coordination in rats with traumatic brain injury. In another study, Xu et al. (2010) demonstrated that KDs enhance memory and pro-cognitive functioning of young rats and normal, health and aged rats.

In a similar study involving mice with Alzheimer’ Disease (AD), KDs were shown to attenuate the accumulation and production of cytotoxic Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) products that were associated with the AD (Van, Wera, Van Leuven, & Henderson, 2005). KDs have also been shown to reduce the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and delay the onset of the loss of motor coordination (Zhao et al., 2006). Tai et al. (2008) also demonstrated that KDs could minimize the generation of seizure activity and neuronal cell death in experiment models of cerebral ischemia and stroke.

Anecdotal evidence have also shown that children with behavioural or development problems, treated using KD, show better cognitive functioning, improve behaviour and show increased alertness (Pulsifer et al., 2001; Nordli et al., 2001). Farasat et al. (2006) also demonstrated a therapeutic synergism between KD and social behavioural support, suggesting that emotional neurological pathways may play a crucial role in the efficacy of KD.

The Warburg Effect cited by Van Derschelden (2016) demonstrated that health cells can use ketone bodies as sources of energy from proteins. Van Derschelden (2016) also explained how patients with severe metastatic skeletal cancer who were given a maximum of three months to live, used KD to reverse the progression of cancer (Van Derschelden, 2016). Dr. Warburg was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1931 for his work on respiratory enzyme, in particular how cancer cells live on sugar (, 2014). In other words, restricting sugar in the diet might kill cancer cells.

Breast cancer cells have six times more insulin receptors than normal breast tissues. Cancer lives on glucose and thus, people who have breast cancer would benefit from a Keto Diet to cut off cancer. They could try to avoid sugary foods to keep the insulin low (Berg E., 2018).

Berg (2018) points out that the Keto Diet consists of three meals a day and intermittent fasting includes two meals and for some people, it is just one meal per day. The calories reduction does not go down at a certain rate, but they have their own rate of change, because when people reduce the frequency of eating, they start retaining more nutrients. When doing keto and intermittent fasting, people could try to keep carbohydrates at 20 grams per day (Berg E. 2018). Carbohydrates from vegetables are not counted. Berg (2017) also recommended certain supplements for those on KD and Intermittent Fasting, namely Minerals (Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium, & Calcium), and Vitamins (A, B1, B3, B5, D and K2).

The marine-based omega 3 (not vegetarian source) reduces the size of tumors by 60 to 70 percent and the numbers of tumors by 30 percent. Removing sugar from the diet only slows down the rate of cancer progression. Some little physical exercises every day could reduce the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease by 4% (, 2018).

Cortisol (the stress hormone) is a glucocorticoid hormone that is vital for the life of human beings. High cortisol increases the risk of disease and premature death. For one to lower the cortisol levels, he or she can meditate, correct electrolyte deficiencies, and supplement their brain with phosphatidylserine (Walker, 2018).

A high cholesterol diet has been linked to cancer. High cholesterol levels make the intestinal cells divide more quickly enabling tumors to form in the colon a hundred times faster than normal.

Fatty liver is a serious disease and linked to both alcohol consumption and non-alcohol reasons, such as a poor diet and sedentary lifestyle. Better nutrition is seen as a good preventive measure followed by limiting alcohol, managing cholesterol and reducing sugar intake (Natural Cures, 2018).

Are carbohydrates really a bad thing to be avoided? Most Asian diets are high on carbohydrates. A recent research claimed that women who intake low carbohydrates are 30% more likely to give birth to babies with defects of spine and brain (, 2018; Desrosiers, Siega-Riz, Mosley, & Meyer, 2018). The study was flawed on several counts (Harcombe, 2018). One cannot stress enough the importance of various lifestyle factors, ethnicity, gender and even health condition when deciding to go off carbohydrates. Perhaps balanced diet is what we really need. The diet that works for you today may not be good enough later in life. One always needs to adjust dietary needs based on where you are in your life’s journey. It is equally important to be aware of your personal health by regular check ups that could include blood, hormone and organ health.


Intermittent Fasting starves the brain of glucose, demanding the conversion of fat into ketones by the body. It challenges the brain by imposing caloric restrictions. This forces the human body to switch to the optional fat stores and convert them into ketones.

Previously, Intermittent Fasting was largely associated with weight loss. However, recent studies have shown that this type of regime can potentially improve learning capability and memory, as well as reduce the risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Varady, & Hellerstein, 2007). It is observed that fasting, which translates to caloric restrictions, helps kick-start body protective measures. These measures counteract the uncontrolled excitation signals and facilitate the healthy functioning of the brain. It was further revealed that fasting induces beneficial neurochemical changes in the brain and brings several benefits.

First, fasting challenges the brain by restricting calories. The brain induces the production of stress response pathways in response to this challenge. These pathways enable the brain to cope with disease risk and stress. The changes occurring in one’s brain during fasting often mimics those changes that occur during regular exercising, as both increase the production of neurotrophic factors, notably utilizing protein in the brain. In return, these neurotrophic factors facilitate the connection between neurones, their growth, and enhance the strength of brain synapses. Varady and Hellerstein (2007) explained what happens in the brain during Intermitted Fasting noting that the cognitive challenge induced by intermitted fasting activates neuron-circuits and increase the levels of neurotrophic factors that promote the strengthening and formation of synapses and growth of neurons.

Secondly, Intermitted Fasting is thought to stimulate stem cells to produce new nerve cells in the hippocampus (Wu, 2014). Long periods of fasting, by patients undergoing chemotherapy, lower white blood cell count. It flips the regenerative switch inducing changes in the signal pathways in hematopoietic stem cells. It also promotes the regeneration of stem cells on the hematopoietic system (Wu, 2014). According to Wu (2014), fasting stimulates ketones production, which is a source of energy for neurons. It also causes increased number of mitochondria in nerve cells and neurons, which adapt the stress introduced by intermitted fasting. The increase in the number of mitochondria within the neurons helps increase their ability to create and maintain connections with each other (Varady & Hellerstein, 2007).

Fasting has been associated with the chemical in the brain called Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), which is known to play a role in improving the overall cognitive functioning of the brain and in promoting the development and growth of nerve cells. It is indicated that during fasting the human body obtained energy from fat cells rather than from glucose, in order to stimulate its activities and the growth of brain cells. It converts fat stores into ketones and uses the ketones to stimulate BDNF production and to optimize memory building, learning and cognition (Varady & Hellerstein, 2007). This explains why individuals who fast tend to be alert and have an active part of the brain that is responsible for memory and fasting. Prolonged fasting is also known to regenerate the immune system and to protect against the damaging of the immune system (Varady, & Hellerstein, 2007). Intermittent Fasting diets have also been shown to improve memory and learning abilities (Young, 2017).

In summary, it has been suggested that combining intermittent fasting and limiting carbohydrates intake is a proven strategy to reduce risk of all chronic diseases, including cancer.


Meditation is the approach to mind training in the same way physical fitness is the approach to body training. Meditation can involve daily mindful meditation, concentration meditation and moving meditation techniques. Concentration meditation entails focusing the mind on a single point or refocusing one’s awareness on a selected object of attention. Mindful meditation involves an individual observing thoughts as they wonder and drift through the mind. It is aimed at helping an individual to see how one’s feelings and thoughts move in certain patterns. Additionally, daily meditation practice involves a person cultivating compassion. Meditation has been linked to a number of benefits including less stress, deeper relaxation, feeling of well-being, less anxiety, lower heart rate, slower respiratory rate, less perspiration, lower blood pressure and improved blood circulation (Nidich et al. 2009; Rainforth et al., 2007; Anderson et al., 2008).

Meditation has often been associated with Spiritual Intelligence (SI). There are a number of things that happen when one meditates: meditation increases neurogenesis which increases the number of brain cells; it allows people to form more intimacy with their food; meditation slows down the body; it helps humans to let go circumstances and people that no longer serve them; it makes people stop judging themselves and accept themselves; it improves humans’ memory; it enables mankind to give up stress; it improves the cardiovascular health and boosts the immune system; it makes people stop blaming themselves; and finally helps people to stop living in the past and focus on the future (Smart, 2016).

Meditation has been linked to human intelligence in several ways: enhancing Emotional Intelligence (EQ), increasing brain size, boosting memory, facilitating the working together of both brain hemispheres. Evidence further suggests that meditation improves human intelligence by creating a perfect condition for intellectual learning and growth in six different ways.

Firstly, meditation balances the right and left-brain by synchronizing the two hemispheres of the brain. In this way, it allows greater processing capability and faster neural communication. By making the creative right brain and the logical left-brain work in harmony, meditation makes it easy for an individual to solve problems, think deeply, magnify the focus and concentration and think more creatively. Brain synchronization has consistently been associated with successful individuals (Nidich et al. 2009; Rainforth et al., 2007).

Secondly, meditation increases the size of the brain by increasing the thickness of an individual’s neural “gray matter” in sections of the brain. This means that meditation makes an individual’s brain to think faster and smarter in the way exercising helps the muscles to become more enduring, denser and stronger. Accordingly, meditation has been pegged as the leading enhancer of the brain and that it can potentially increase levels of intelligence (Gard, et al., 2014).

Thirdly, meditation is reported to facilitate the development of very beneficial brainwave patterns. It is argued that meditation guides one’s brainwaves into beneficial frequencies, notably theta, delta and alpha. It is also associated with other benefits, including powerful idea generation, super creativity, overall intellectual capacity, and enhanced cognitive functioning. It is suggested that meditation is the easiest and best way for accessing these super beneficial states of the mind and that these states can transform an individual’s life in many different ways, including increasing intellectual quotient (Paul-Labrador et al., 2006).

Meditation is known to be an intuition and insight booster, and is believed to be critical to improve human abilities. It is also argued that this inner intelligence can be derived from listening and developing one’s inner voice. Alstott et al. (2009) argued that though this form of intelligence cannot be gauged with tests and quizzes, it is highly useful on all levels, as it stimulates creativity, insight, natural understanding and helps one to see beyond the identified five senses of experience.

Meditation is believed to improve Intelligence Quotient (IQ) by improving short-term and long-term memory. It is noteworthy that these two types of memory constitute the key component of IQ and intelligence. According to Anicha et al. (2012), meditation significantly increases the activity of the frontal brain lobe and the hippocampus, which are part of the brain responsible for memory. By stimulating these vital parts of the brain, meditation helps increase the capacity of short-term and long-term memory making it to be easier for one to undertake daily life, job and schoolwork.

Meditation is known to advance one’s Emotional Intelligence (EQ). According to Brewer et al. (2012) many people do not subject their emotions to reasoning and reasonably address them. Instead, outside circumstances hold people as prisoners. Colzato et al., (2006) emphasized that regular meditation gives an individual EQ enabling him or her to listen and tune into one’s feelings and work through them in a sober and calm manner. EQ also enables an individual to read the emotional clues of others and respond appropriately (Nidich et al. 2009; Rainforth et al., 2007). It has also been shown that meditation techniques combined with cold water therapy might be helpful to build and rebuild the nervous system.

Conte (2018) argues that the best way to meditate is to sit up by keeping the spine straight. While in this position, one has to close his or her eyes. The next thing to do is to focus on breathing by inhaling through the nose, holding it briefly and exhaling through the mouth.

According to Conte (2018), the brain can be strengthened by meditation, thus fighting fright response (anxiety) be minimized. People should allow thoughts while they are meditating. Just a few minutes of meditation allow the brain to focus on the present rather than the past (Conte, 2018). Conte (2018) also described how important it is to deal with anger. Anger itself is not the issue, rather it is an indication of deep seated pains, which if not treated, could lead to a continual cycle of losing temper.


Would it surprise you to know that a simple thing such as bathing in cold water could not only boost your immune system, but also make you more intelligent? Cold showers have been found to improve blood circulation, reduce depression, burn fat, improve sleep, improve fertility in men and lead to better emotional resilience.

A cold shower stimulates the brain’s blue spot that can help lower the chances of being depressed according to the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine (Shevchuk, 2008). A cold shower helps to burn fat in the body. It also helps to improve the sleep of an individual. People across cultures switched to bathing in cold water, as it has been found to improve blood circulation and even fertility. A study by the University of California found that cold showers improve emotional resilience and immunity while aiding in recovery (Freeman, Johnson, Staudenmaier, & Zisser, 2015).


It is often said knowledge is power. Well, not really. Not unless you use knowledge effectively. This paper brings together a wealth of alternative therapies that show how easily anyone can not only boost their intelligence, but also improve overall health.

There are other approaches to healing worth mentioning here for those who want to delve deeper. The major ones worth mentioning are: Reiki (Usui, 2000), Paidalajin (Xiao, 2013) and Chiropractic (Palmer, 1910). Additionally, Martel (2014) has listed five steps to healing, namely: knowledge, openness, letting go, acceptance and action. He also goes on to explain why two people following the same therapy do not show similar results. Martel (2014) explains that the difference is due to behaviours and attitudes, and the understanding that we ourselves are the key to our healing. Not being aware of inner conflicts and fears is a major impediment to holistic health. Martel (2011) has a comprehensive dictionary of ailments and diseases and their psychological significance. Notably, he associated cancer with suppressed emotion, deep resentment, a difficult divorce, loss of job, loss of a loved one, desperation and deep resentment.

As a final note, not all human body types are the same (Berg, 2017). We even have different brain types (Andrian, 2015). What is actually working for you, might not work for someone else. We need to search our inner selves to know who we really are. This is the secret to happiness and a better quality of life.

Happiness would not be less, whenever cancer test is negative.


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There has been an increased interest in multiple dimensions of intelligence. This paper seeks to link intelligence to Micro-Expression. More specifically with Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Cultural Intelligence (CQ), and People Intelligence (PQ).

Micro-Expressions are often expressed involuntarily by humans on their faces based on the emotions experienced. These brief involuntary facial expressions are often expressed by individuals in situations where they feel they will either gain or lose. People express these expressions when they consciously make attempts to conceal their feelings or think about their feelings (Freitas-Magalhães, 2012; Ekman, 2003). They are brief in duration and last between half a second to several seconds. These expressions can be labeled, spotted and expressed in the same way basic emotions such as anger, contempt, surprise, sadness, joy, and fear are expressed (Ekman, 1999). According to Ekman (1992), basic and universal emotions including shame, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, surprise, sadness and anxiety are expressed in these Micro-Expressions. Ekman (1999) expanded the list of negative and positive emotions including that are aroused when individuals are exposed to certain situations: embarrassment, shame, relief, pride, pleasure, contentment, content amusement, pride, guilt, and anxiety. Ekman (1999) revealed that universally, people tend to express similar emotions whenever they are exposed to situations that provoke such emotions.

Micro-Expressions are classified into three depending on how they are modified by situations: simulated expressions, neutralized expressions, and masked expressions. Simulated expressions are Micro-Expressions that are not accompanied by non-genuine emotions. They are expressed as brief flashes of an expression. Neutralized expressions occur following the suppression of a genuine expression with the face remaining neutral. The successful suppression of neutralized expression makes it difficult for another person to observe them (Ekman & Friesen, 2003). On the other hand, masked expressions occur when a falsified expression completely masks a genuine expression. People tend to hide, either consciously or subconsciously, masked expressions (Ekman, & Friesen, 2003).

It can be hard to explicitly pick up and understand involuntary facial expressions. Goleman (1995) believes that these expressions are recorded and recognized in the unconscious mind as implicit competence. Goleman (1995) further believes that individuals have the capacity to recognize their own Micro-Expressions and emotions of other people and to introspectively discriminate these emotions based on such feelings. In EQ, empathy and reporting are guided by an unconscious synchrony referred to as attunement (Goleman, 1995). According to Goleman (1995) attunement relies on non-verbal communication. Involuntary behavior may be elicited by facial expressions in a process referred to as looping. Research on motor mimicry has revealed that neurons often display facial expressions through muscles in the face. It is believed that this occurs when neurons pick up facial expressions, which are then communicated to motor neurons that control the way muscles are expressed in the face. This suggests that an individual who tries to remain neutral in his or her Micro-Expression can be provoked to produce a smile by another individual displaying a smile in his or her face (Goleman, 2006). These involuntary habits, emotions, and functions take place when amygdala hijacks the pre-frontal cortex thereby impairing the better judgment and rationality (Goleman, 1995). This demonstrates how sensory memory and involuntary behavior can be interpreted and executed by the bottom brain. This demonstrates the role played by Micro-Expressions in attunement. It also reveals how one can interpret Micro-Expressions. Micro-Expressions of a hidden emotion that is displayed on a person will tend to induce same emotions in a process that Goleman (2006) referred to as emotional contagion. Individuals will the ability to introspect these Micro-Expressions have high EQ. Such individuals are believed to have the ability to read accurately and interpret emotions.


Emotions are data for making decisions, for protecting us, for initiating action, and for understanding others and oneself. Emotional Quotient and Emotional Intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to an individuals’ ability to understand and recognize their emotions and those of other people, and the ability of people to manage their relationships and behavior by utilizing this awareness. Since its introduction by John Mayer and Peter Salovey in 1990, EQ has become one of the most controversial and widely investigated constructs in psychology (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2009). The development of measuring instruments that can reliably measure EQ has also been problematic (Conte, 2005). Among the many EQ theories, Mayer and Salovey (1997)’s ability-based model has the strongest empirical and theoretical basis. The strength of this model includes the objective nature of measuring EQ and the low redundancy between the traditional concept of intelligence (Intelligence Quotation [IQ]) and personality.

The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) test is believed to be valid in predicting the effectiveness of interpersonal and social activities (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2009). Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) model identifies four branches of EQ: emotional facilitation of thinking; appraisal, perception, the perception of emotion; employing emotional knowledge and analysis and understanding emotions; and reflective regulation of emotions. Each of these branches describes emotional abilities. Abilities constituting the four branches are vital in emotional deception detection.

It is suggested that Emotional Intelligence can facilitate the recognition of Micro-Expressions and the detection of a lie. It is believed that an individual with high EQ can read Micro-Expressions and interpret them and that this is an important part of reading people and understanding nonverbal behavior (Pazian, 2014).

Existing research have shown that by reading and interpreting universal Micro-Expressions, including anger, fear, contempt, surprise, happiness, sadness and disgust, one can detect whether someone is lying or telling the truth (Wojciechowski, Stolarski, & Matthews, 2014). Wojciechowski, Stolarski, and Matthews (2014) examined whether individuals with high EQ can effectively detect emotional liars. It was revealed that individuals that demonstrate superior emotional perceptionsare more adept at detecting deception through the identification of mismatch between verbal messages and facial messages. Wojciechowski, Stolarski, and Matthews (2014) identified two personal factors believed to predict such abilities: high EQ and female gender. The analysis of Face Decoding Test confirmed the correlation between superior face decoding and EQ. results also confirmed gender differences in EQ with females found to have higher EQ than males. Results also revealed that integration of cognitive and emotional cues are core attributes of EQ and these attributes make it possible for the individual with high EQ to detect deception.

Elsewhere, Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey (1990) consider an individual’s ability to identify emotions in other individuals as the core ability of EQ. According to Mayer, DiPaolo and Salovey (1990), this ability is necessary though not sufficient for unmasking emotional liars and detecting emotional leakages. Mayer, DiPaolo and Salovey (1990) argue that without an effective perception of another person’s emotions, an individual may not be able to effectively detect emotional deceit in another person. For Mayer and Salovey (1997) an individual with high EQ can discriminate between dishonest and honest expressions of feelings. As noted by Mayer and Salovey (1997), an individual with emotional skills should also have the ability to make use of emotion in directing attention to important information. This process, also referred to as emotional facilitation of thoughts, may be used to support and improve the basic emotional perception skills. It is also important to recognize that having emotional understanding abilities, including having the ability to recognize relations between emotions and words may help an individual in interpreting the meaning that is conveyed by emotions regarding interpersonal interactions, and in recognizing transitions among emotions (Mayer, & Salovey, 1997). This emotional reasoning process is particularly important in cases where an individual is required to combine the verbal expressions of an interlocutor with information emerging from the facial expressions of the interlocutor (Vrij & Mann, 2004).

Studies by Porter et al. (2011) and Elfenbein et al. (2010) examined EQ within the context of deception. Porter et al. (2011) found that individuals with a high ability to express and perceive emotions have the ability to convincingly feign emotions than other individuals. However, it was noted that individual with these abilities do not have the ability to prevent emotional leakage. Elfenbein et al. (2010) found similar results. However, Elfenbein et al. (2010) only measured emotion recognition ability but not the overall EQ. In another study, Baker, ten Brinke and Porter (2012) examined whether high EQ was a defining characteristic of a “detection wizard”. Results showed that total EQ score and discrimination of lies and truth were not related. However, the perception score was found to be negatively associated with the detection of deceptive targets. In this study, the experimental design was specific and involved engaging real-life videos of people who were emotionally pleading for the missing family members to return safely. Half of these people played a significant role in the murder (disappearance) of the missing ones. This study, therefore, considered liars and high-stakes emotional deceptions.

It has been suggested that there are gender differences in the cognitive-emotional processes. It is believed that females have higher EQ than males (Van Rooy, Alonso, & Viswevaran, 2005). It is argued that females are superior to males when it comes to the detection of deceptions in their romantic partners (McCornack & Parks, 1990). It is believed that this is because women are superior when it comes to reading facial expressions and other nonverbal cues than men. Women are also believed to be superior when it comes to experimental “mind-reading tasks”, including a feeling of an acquaintance and inferring the thoughts (Thomas & Fletcher, 2003). Women are also believed to be superior in perceptual sensitivity and to have subtle non-verbal affective signals (Donges, Kersting, & Suslow, 2012). They tend to have a keen interest in nonverbal cues (Hurd & Noller, 1988).


Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is an individual’s capability to effectively work, relate and interact with people in culturally diverse contexts. Individuals with high CQ have the capability to successfully achieve their objectives within culturally diverse context. Such people have CQ Drive, CQ knowledge, CQ Action and CQ Strategy (Van Dyne, Ang, Ng, Rockstuhl, Tan, & Koh, 2012). Cultural Intelligence (CQ) impacts the person’s ability to interact with different cultures in an effective manner. It enables an individual to work and relate effectively across culture (James, Lenartowicz, & Apud, 2006). This tool can help improve an individual’s performance in different cultural settings and identify meanings that could be misunderstood or lost in translation in non-verbal behavior.

Ekman (2003) sheds light on how individuals from different cultures react differently to similar events. Ekman (2003) identified emotional triggers that elicit emotions whenever an individual encounters different situations: universal triggers, unique triggers and other triggers. Universal triggers elicit similar emotional in all individuals regardless of culture or personality. On the other hand unique triggers elicit different emotions in people depending on how they were socialized (i.e., personality and culture). For example, individuals from certain culture may be irritated by people speaking loudly while people from other cultures find it acceptable. While some cultures fear oceans, others seek to explore them. In Ekman (2003)’s view these variances are the result of how individual were socialized. There are other triggers (e.g., post-traumatic stress) that are rooted in the individual’s unique experience and personality. They understand and appreciate remarkable differences in people who are from different cultures. Ekman (1992) confirmed that that people from different cultures universally express Micro-Expressions: fear, happiness, surprise, disgust, anger sadness, and contempt. It is further argued that individuals with high CQ have same social sensibilities while relating and interacting with individuals from diverse cultures who display different and unique emotions in ways that are not familiar with them.


People Intelligence (PQ) indicates the individual’s capacity to work and relate with other people. PQ has three aspects: self-management; openness to others; and interpersonal effectiveness. People with high PQ are known to work well with people. They create a shared meaning, inspire and motivate others to work together as a team in order to actualize reality. They are self-aware and know their weaknesses and strengths. They have the ability to use their strengths to address or compensate for their weaknesses.

The Big Five personality traits, or the Five Factor Model (FFM) is a well-known model that describes personality. The model was initially proposed by Tupes & Christal (1961) and later improved by Digman (1990). The five factors are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism, also known as OCEAN. Openness is the curiosity to experience something new; Conscientiousness is the tendency to be either organized or careless; Extraversion explains whether the person is outgoing or socially reserved; Agreeableness describes friendliness or compassion against being detached; and Neuroticism is about being sensitive or nervous against being secure and confident.

It is believed that an individual’s PQ is determined by factors such as experience, skills, social network, knowledge and Emotional Intelligence (EQ) (Ekman, Friesen, & O’Sullivan, 1988). It is also argued that people with high EQ have high PQ and have the capability to discriminate genuine facial expressions to fake ones (Ekman, Friesen, & O’Sullivan, 1988). It has been suggested that Micro-Expressions can use used for authenticity judgment (i.e., genuine and fake smiles) (Skinner, & Mullen, 1993; Frank, Ekman, & Friesen, 1993; Schmidt, Bhattacharya, & Denlinger, 2009).


A review of related literature has found links between Micro-Expression and human intelligence in the form of EQ, CQ and PQ. Understanding this concept could help detecting lies and avoiding deception. Applications of this technique are in interview techniques and criminal investigation that could allow the investigator to catch the liars. Not able to identify subtle non-verbal behavior could have disastrous consequences.


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Gardner (1983) challenged the conventional view of intelligence by proposing seven (later extended to nine) types of intelligence and how people learn. Those with naturalistic intelligence are smart in dealing with the natural world while those with existential intelligence as asking deep moral questions; those with visual-spatial intelligence think in terms of physical space; those with bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence have a keen sense of their body; those with musical intelligence are sensitive to sound; those with interpersonal intelligence are better at interacting with others; those with intrapersonal intelligence are in tune with their inner feelings; linguistic intelligence refers to those good with words; and logical-mathematical intelligence describes higher ability to reason and calculate (Gardner, 1983).

Multiple intelligence are hard to measure and difficult to assess (Luskin, 2013). While Gardner (1983) proposed a limited set of intelligence, intelligence is not black and white. Emmons (2000), for example, considered spiritual intelligence an extension to Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligence. Marty Klein is a researcher on sexual intelligence (Kerner, 2012). This paper limits its analysis to three types of intelligence – EQ, CQ and PQ.

This paper refers to intrapersonal intelligence as a subset of Emotional Intelligence (EQ), whereas interpersonal intelligence is referred to as People Intelligence (PQ). This paper first discusses the meaning of three types of intelligence that are rapidly gaining importance in the field of crime scene investigation techniques. These are Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Cultural Intelligence (CQ) & People Intelligence (PQ). The significance of these intelligences within investigation techniques is discussed in detail.


Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is a psychological concept that defines an individuals’ ability to identify, understand, use and manage their emotions in a way that helps relieve stress, empathize and communicate effectively with other people, defuse conflict and overcome challenges (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). This ability allows individuals to understand and recognize what other people are experiencing emotionally. For the most part, this understanding and recognition is a nonverbal process that influences how well individuals connect with other people. It also influences people’s thinking about others. EQ differs based on an individual’s intellectual ability.

Golemon (1998) indicated that unlike intellectual ability, which is acquired, EQ is learned. Golemon (1998) and other proponents of this new psychometric, including psychologists Mayer & Salovey (1997) emphasize that EQ exists innately in certain individuals. Golemon (1998) added that everyone has a certain level of EQ and have the ability to monitor their own emotional states, emotions and enhance their EQ. Golemon (1998) suggests that society, both the private and public sector, should dedicate more resource towards research and programs that would help people develop EQ. Other researchers (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) regard EQ as a skill that combines emotions (feelings) and cognitions (thoughts). Mayer & Salovey (1997) placed EQ within the context of well-being, health and personality.

EQ is defined by four key attributes: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Chong, Lee, Roslan, & Baba, 2015). Self-awareness is an individual’s ability to recognize their emotions and how they affect their thoughts. Self-management is the individuals’ ability to control behaviors and impulse feelings and manage their emotions in healthy way, follow through on commitments, take initiatives, and adapt to changing situations and circumstances. On the other hand, social awareness is the ability of individuals to understand their needs; emotions; other people’s concerns; pick up on emotional cues; recognize the power of organization or group’s dynamics and feel comfortable socially. Lastly, relationship management is the individual’s ability to communicate clearly, develop and maintain good relationships, influence and inspire other people, manage conflict and work well with team members.

A large body of research has suggested a possible link between EQ and criminal behaviour suggesting that criminal psychologists can understand criminal behaviour by understanding their EQ and ultimately profiling a criminal accordingly (Caspi,, 1994; Eysenck, 1996; Gottfredson & Travis, 1990; Hayes & O’Reilly, 2013; Lynam, 1993; Megreya, 2013; Puglia,, 2005; Sharma,, 2015).


Cultural Intelligence (CQ) refers to the ability of an individual ability to recognize and understand values, behaviors, customs, values and languages of a people and to apply that knowledge in order to achieve specific goals. It enables an individual to work and relate effectively across culture (James, Lenartowicz, & Apud, 2006). This tool can help improve an individual’s performance in different cultural settings and identify meanings that could be misunderstood or lost in translation in non-verbal behavior. Securing and using CQ can enable an investigator to function effectively in multicultural settings, blend into the community and gain acceptance and thus, conduct a successful investigation.

Cultural Intelligence (CQ) impacts the person’s ability to interact with different cultures in an effective manner. A popular model of CQ proposed by Earlye & Ang (2003) has four dimensions – Cognitive, Meta-cognitive, Motivational, and Behavioral. Cognitive focuses on the person’s knowledge of cultural practices; Meta-cognitive focuses on the awareness of cultural background during interpersonal interactions; Motivational focuses on the individual’s drive to learn more about culture; and Behavioral aspect focuses on their verbal and non-verbal abilities (Ward, Fischer, Lam, & Hall, 2009).


The Big Five personality traits, or the Five Factor Model (FFM) is a well-known model that describes personality. The model was initially proposed by Tupes & Christal (1961) and later improved by Digman (1990). The five factors are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism, also known as OCEAN. Openness is the curiosity to experience something new; Conscientiousness is the tendency to be either organized or careless; Extraversion explains whether the person is outgoing or socially reserved; Agreeableness describes friendliness or compassion against being detached; and Neuroticism is about being sensitive or nervous against being secure and confident.

People Intelligence (PQ) makes individuals aware of the inner motivations of people they interact with in everyday life. Individuals with high PQ have the ability to perceive what makes their coworkers, friends, and family tick. They can read non-verbal behaviour and body language of other people and accurately weigh choices they are presented with in work, family life and relationships and accurately judge whether their personal life goals to together well or conflict. Police detectives and other investigators with high PQ are inquisitive about people, open to own experiences, show willingness to change themselves can anticipate their actions and desires, and ultimately predict behaviors of offenders or criminals (Zacker & Bard, 1973).


It is suggested that EQ can help criminal investigators recognize to a certain extent, intentions of other people and consequently in determining whether an individual is being manipulative. As such, investigators can use EQ as an element of investigation. As revealed in multiple studies, EQ can provide detectives with clues about offenders and their mode of operation. For example, the FBI investigator, Robert Ressler became sensitive to significant difference in mode of operations between John Gacy and Ted Bundy. Bundy would first use a blunt strike to know out victims. On the contrary, Gacy would use deceit to kill his victims (Guy, 2016). On this basis, an investigator can check whether the offender’s victim was prone to abuse or deceit. The investigator can also determine the mode of operation of the perpetrator (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 2000).

Elsewhere, it has been argued that higher EQ is a predictor of satisfaction in life (Mayer et al., 2000). Mayer et al. (2000) believe that individuals with high EQ are more likely to exhibit healthier psychological adaption because such people demonstrate adaptive defense behavior against adaptation. Similarly, studies on performance measures of EQ have suggested that higher EQ levels can be associated with increased and improved relationships with family and friends. On the contrary, lower EQ have been associated with problematic behavior and unfavourable interactions with family and friends (Mayer et al., 2000). Lower EQ was associated with trouble-prone behavior and lower self-reported violent behavior among college students (Mayer et al., 2000). In Mayer et al. (2000), lower EQ was measured using Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence (MSCEIT) and found to associate with increased involvement in deviant behavior, including the involvement in vandalism and physical fights and increased use of alcohol and illegal drugs. Erasmus (2007) revealed that individuals who are lacking in emotional and social competence lack the ability to relate and empathize with others and are self-centered. Erasmus (2007) also found that students with delinquency problems (i.e., participate in crimes, sale drugs, engage in sexual behavior, truancy, dishonesty and pornography) experience emotional and personal problems. A prospective study by Fortin (2003) further revealed that students with delinquency behavior lack self-control and that this makes unable to accept other people and react to criticism in a better way. Fortin (2003) also suggested that a lack of the ability to control moods and emotions makes these delinquent students to conflict with adults and other students. In another study investigating the EQ-delinquency behavior, Chong et al. (2015) confirmed that students with higher delinquency behavior had lower EQ than the normal students.

Researchers in various fields including criminology, sociology and psychology have also suggested a possible correlation between criminal behavior and EQ with remarkable interests being given to personality and intelligence (Frisell, Pawitan, & Langstrom, 2012; Lynam, Moffitt, & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1993; Eysenck, 1996). Two studies (Frisell, Pawitan, & Langstrom, 2012; Lynam, Moffitt, & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1993) suggested that criminal offenders tend to have lower EQ than non-offenders. Other studies have associated criminal behavior with personality variables including low level of self-control; high level of adverse emotionality; and high levels of neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion; and difficulty in impulse control (Mottus et al., 2012; Caspi et al., 1994; Gottfredson & Travis, 1990).

Cultural orientation has been found to influence criminal violence because they are supportive of violence (Messner, 1988). Culture is a set of values and beliefs. Therefore they can be learned through social interactions and passed on through groups and across generations (Holt, 2009). Ferrell (1995) states that criminal behaviour is subcultural behaviour, whether carried out by an individual or a group. Research has found a relationship between criminal acts and symbolism, which is commonly found in criminal subcultures. This highlights the importance of CQ in criminal profiling.

A recent study by Gottfredson and Travis (1990) associated criminal behavior with high level of Neuroticism and low levels of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness (PQ). Other studies found conflicting results regarding correlation between criminal behavior and EQ. Results by Moriarty et. al. (2001) showed that adolescent sex offenders and age-matched none-offenders had similar EQ variables. However, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) revealed a deficit in offenders’ attention to feeling. In another study, Puglia et al. (2005) did not find significant difference between controls and adult offenders in EQ, as measured by MSCEIT. However, in Puglia et al. (2005) sex offenders had a higher score than none-sex offenders on a MSCEIT scale. In Hayes and O’Reilly (2013), 26 male juveniles were found to have lower EQ than 30 control male juveniles. On the contrary, Hemmati et al. (2004) found adult male offenders to have higher trait EQ levels than the normative sample of Emotional Question Inventory (Hoaken et al., 2007; Owen, & Fox, 2011; Megreya, 2013). Other studies supporting low EQ in offender found that violent perpetrators had low score than nonviolent offenders in empathy and facial expression recognition (Hoaken et al., 2007; Owen, & Fox, 2011). EQ was also found to strongly correlate with criminal thinking styles (Megreya, 2013). Megreya et al. (2012) found EQ to correlate with criminal styles of thinking, which differed with the types of offense. Violent offenders were found to experience more problems on multiple components of EQ than offenders, including social problem solving, personal control, self-regulation, mental health, and emotional stability (McMurran et al., 2001; Ross, & Fontao, 2007; Mak, 1991; Jones et al., 2007). Elsewhere, Megreya (2013) examined the link between criminal behavior and EQ using samples of Egyptian adult none-offenders and offenders. Megreya (2013) further examined the possible correlation between EQ and types of offenses by dividing offenders who had sentenced into three categories: those sentenced for murders, drugs, and theft. Results were in conformity with indirect and direct aggression theory that physical aggression requires less social intelligence than indirect aggression. According to developmental theory of aggressive behavior, direct verbal aggression requires less social intelligence than indirect aggression, and physical aggression requires more social intelligence than direct verbal aggression (Fisher, Beech, & Browne, 1999). This theory suggests that high EQ levels constrain individuals from participating in criminal activities. It was suggested that EQ training should be included in the forensic intervention programs. Elsewhere, it was suggested that criminal behavior could be minimized by improving on components of EQ, including facial expression recognition, social problem solving and anger management (Penton-Voak et al., 2013; Walters, 2008; Nelis et al., 2009).

Sharma et al. (2015) examined the relationship between criminal behavior and low levels of EQ using a sample of 202 subjects. The sample consisted of 101 matched normal controls and 101 convicted offenders. The offender group was picked from a jail and consisted of persons convicted of robbery, rape, murder and other different crimes. The control groups and the intervention groups were matched on gender, marital status, occupation, education, and age and assessed on Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII) and General Health Questionnare-12. The convicted offenders group received significantly lower score on MEII domains than the control group. These domains include interpersonal awareness (other emotions), intrapersonal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal management (other emotions), intrapersonal management, and aggregate emotional quotient.

Canter (1994) identified crime as a form of interpersonal relations/connection, involving one person observing specific ways via which an offender treats the victim. He emphasized the dependency between personality traits and behaviors of a criminal. Canter (1994) likens crime to theoretical performance. Canter (1994) contests that criminal offenders use violence to dramatically write for themselves and cast their crime victims in three key roles: people, vehicles and objects.

This discussion explains how an investigator without adequate understanding of EQ, CQ and PQ could easily misinterpret a person’s behaviour.


As confirmed in this paper, findings from several studies discussed in this paper suggest that cyber profiling can be improved by adding the element of EQ, CQ and PQ as forensic experts can interview offenders with a view to determine their EQ. Certain criminal investigations could further benefit from sexual and spiritual intelligence which might reveal motives behind the criminal activity.

This paper analyzed how multiple intelligences (in particular EQ, CQ and PQ) could make criminal investigation more effective. EQ is useful to understand one’s own emotions and this helps the investigator defuse interpersonal conflicts. EQ teaches the importance of self-awareness and how this ability could help the investigator pick up vital emotional cues when interviewing people.

CQ is equally important because people from different ethnic origins display different behaviour. The knowledge of different customs will allow the investigator to behave in a suitable manner and not jeopardize the investigation by giving out wrong signals. Investigation of certain crimes requires a good deal of people interaction. PQ is vital because not knowing personality traits could lead the investigator in the wrong track.

Considering these studies it is clear that the importance of EQ, CQ and PQ within investigation techniques cannot be denied. A person’s openness or the lack of it, their cultural background could be valuable information to understand them. These are indicators of certain personality traits but cannot be interpreted as a judgment of their behaviour.


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The increase in the number of people using networked digital devices has led to incidences of crime that call for forensic investigations (Brown, 2015). The existence of Cyber Forensics skills has made it possible to gather evidence from such devices. The evidence collected is used in courts to establish the crime and bring Cyber criminals to justice. Cyber Forensic investigators and analysts are often entrusted with the task of finding, recording, analysing, and reporting of digital evidence. The whole process of gathering forensic evidence has a number of challenges. These challenges are categorized into five broad areas: hardware challenges, software challenges, cloud forensic challenges, legal challenges and human challenges (Karie, & Venter, 2015; Lindsey, 2006; Mohay, 2005).


Hardware challenges are linked to the needs of the modulated technology and enhancements of the hardware. Studies suggested that some criminal suspects change the hard disk within their devices before the Cyber Forensic expert can gain access to the device (National Institute of Justice, 2002; Brown, 2015). In such cases, the suspects use the write blockers to shift information between the two hard disks. The main effect is that a forensic examination of the new hard disk, may not display some of the relevant evidence. On the other hand, the evidence gathered from the new hard disk will lack consistency, and may not be apparent (Brown, 2015; Spafford, 2006).

Further, the evidence gathered from a device that was reset, may accentuate the problem since during the reset process, a small portion of the backup information is likely to have been reinstalled. For example, different mobile devices have hard disks that have enmeshed algorithm that are responsible for erasing the data automatically. Since the technology for collecting information from unused devices or devices where information was deleted by a user is still under development, there is likely to be some delays in obtaining such information. It is for this reasons that some Cyber Forensic experts have reported tremendous challenges in retrieving information from content that was deleted from the device (Spafford, 2006).


The current era of technological advancements and changes in gathering forensic evidence has resulted into the birth of Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS), which have brought a number of changes into the computing structure. The use of new software and new technology has brought about a number of challenges. One of the challenges is lined to the well-developed device operating system. The current operating systems have been log enabled, and now requires a Cyber Forensic expert to gather background information on the device, which includes the information on accessibility of the application, usage of the application, and the level of information provided by the specific user of the application. Even though the new development appears like a progress for the different devices, the development requires some time for it to mature (Spafford, 2006; Giordano & Maciag, 2002).

Several challenges have been reported on the application accessibility since the application and the operating system are defined differently (Giordano & Maciag, 2002). For example, any alteration made on the file content may not be tracked until it is compared with subsequent/previous file versions or, if it is compared with the modified version of the time stamp. In case the Cyber Forensic expert suspects some manipulation on the document, it would be a challenge to determine the extent of manipulation (Brown, 2015).

Further, some forms of applications and log information that are collected by the application or the operating system, could be useful as evidence in certain cases. Despite the usefulness of the application, the awareness of its use is still at an infant stage making it difficult for the Cyber Forensic experts to ensure the effective use of the application. For example, an operating system like Windows 8 will collect information on all the Wi-Fi networks that have been accessed together with the transmission of the data. The information gathered would help investigations, such as those investigations that involve theft of data or in cases of network intrusion. However, a correlation between the gathered information, from the sources, and the event violation in the gathered information is a concept under research and experimentation (Giordano & Maciag, 2002).

The high number of mobile messaging applications available across the globe uses a software that automatically erase the information that is shared. The main challenge here is that it will be complex for a Cyber Forensic expert to gather such information that was deleted. Another challenge is the encryption in different mobile devices with intention of having the information protected especially during the process of gathering data. For example, gathering data from encrypted mobile chat applications may pose a challenge in certain situations. Contrary to popular belief all mobile chat applications are not encrypted. Certain mobile chats allow a secure connection between the sender and the receiver with no option to retrieve the message after a set time period. Other sessions are simply saved as text messages in the phone storage allowing anyone with the mobile phone passcode to access all stored messages. Even without a passcode, it is technically possible for the chat server to provide chat history with the right encryption key. The decryption of devices may be a challenge to some investigations where the storage or device itself is encrypted (Giordano & Maciag, 2002).

Not handing over mobile device PIN and passwords could lead to legal consequences in certain countries. For example, not giving passwords can get someone arrested according to Schedule 7 of Terrorism Act in the United Kingdom (, 2008; Mandhai, 2017).


Cloud computing is now used by smart mobile devices. The flexibility and scalability of cloud computing poses a huge challenge to forensic investigation (Lopez, Moon, & Park, 2016). The data in these devices, maybe able to be accessed everywhere hence posing another challenge to the investigators. It is a challenge for the investigator to locate the data in a way that ensures the privacy rights of the users. The investigators require the knowledge on anti-forensic tools, practices, and tools that help ensure that the forensic analysis is done accordingly (Spafford, 2006; Lopez, Moon, & Park, 2016).

Cloud-based applications also enable users to ensure that data is accessed from various devices. For example, if one of the two devices of a single user is compromised and both devices lead to some changes in the application, it would be difficult for the Cyber Forensic expert to identify the real source of the change. High risks may compromise credentials and theft of the identity in an environment that is cloud-based and lead to changes that are unknown such as the evidence remaining unknown. On the other hand, an email viewed using a user’s smart mobile device and deleted may not be traced easily. In most cases, it would be difficult to examine severs of the mail and identify the evidence of the deleted communication (Lopez, Moon, & Park, 2016).


There have been some changes in the data protection and privacy regulations in different countries across the globe (Garrie & Morrissy, 2014). Cyber laws and regulations in different jurisdiction vary and many do not take into account, the complexity in collecting forensic evidence. For example, in the machine of a suspect, the information that is available is likely to have some personal information that could be crucial in an investigation. However, accessibility to such private information is likely to be considered as a violation of user privacy (Spafford, 2006).

On the other hand, the era of companies giving some provision to their employees to use their individual devices in accessing the official communication is likely to contribute to several challenges involved in data gathering. Accessing the email of a user, for instance, using webmail and a smart mobile device together with downloading the involved attachments is an example of theft of personal data. In the current era, collecting specific information from a user device is in itself a challenge (Kaur & Kaur, 2012).


Cyber Forensic experts are tasked with collecting and analysing the role of identifying criminals and going through all the evidence gathered against the criminals. These are well-trained professionals working for the public law enforcement agencies or in the private sector to perform roles that are associated to the collection and analysis of forensic evidence. The Cyber Forensic experts also come up with reports that are majorly used in the legal settings for investigations. Besides working in the laboratory, Cyber Forensic experts take up the role of applying the techniques of forensic investigation in the field uncovering the data that is relevant for the court (Karie & Venter, 2015).

The Cyber Forensic experts have the ability of recovering data, which was deleted previously, hidden in the mobile folds, or encrypted. The court, in most cases, calls the Cyber Forensic experts to provide testimony in the court and elaborate on the evidence reports during a given investigation. As such, the Cyber Forensic investigators get involved in complicated cases that may include examining Internet abuse, determining the digital resources that are misused, verifying the offenders’ alibis, and examining how the network was used to come up with forensic threats. There are times when the Cyber Forensic expert is expected to offer support to cases that deal with intrusions, breaching of data, or any form of incident. Through the application of the relevant software and techniques, the device, system or the platform is examined for any kind of evidence on the persons involved on the crime (Karie, & Venter, 2015).

In a forensic examination, data is retrieved from the digital devices, which are considered to be evidence required for the investigations. In most cases, a systematic approach may be used to analyse the evidence, which would be presented in the court at the time of the proceedings. At an early stage of the investigation, the Cyber Forensic expert is required to get involved in gathering evidence. Early engagement in the investigation process helps the Cyber Forensic expert to be in a position to restore all the content without causing damage to the integrity (Karie, & Venter, 2015).

There are different types of forensic cases that are handled by the Cyber Forensic experts. Some of the cases deal with intruders getting into the victim’ devices and stealing their data, other cases, are for the crime offenders who launch attacks on several websites or those who try to gain some access to the names of the users and the password so as to engage in identity fraud. A Cyber Forensic expert has the ability to explore the type of fraud committed by analysing the evidence and using the required techniques. Despite the reason behind the investigation, the experts go through the process procedurally to ensure the findings recorded or gathered are sound. After opening a given case, the items that would be seized include the digital devices, software, and other media equipment’s so as to run the investigation. In the retrieval process, the items considered essential will be gathered so as to give the analyst everything that would be required for the testimony (Karie, & Venter, 2015).

Another human-related challenge faced by Cyber Forensics is spoliation (Cavaliere 2001; Mercer 2004). Spoliation occurs when the person handling evidence fails to preserve, alters evidence, or destroys evidence that could be useful in pending ligation (Watson, 2004). Spoliation may be caused by negligent on the part of the party handling the litigation or handling evidence and intentional destroying evidence by the handler.


Elsewhere, in a literature-based study, Karie and Venter (2015) identified and categorized cyber forensic challenges into four: technical challenges, law enforcement or legal system challenges, personal-related challenges and operational challenges.

Technical Challenges were identified as vast volume of data; bandwidth restrictions; encryption; volatility of digital evidence; incompatibility among heterogeneous forensic techniques; the digital media’s limited lifespan; emerging devices and technologies, sophistication of digital crimes; anti-forensics; emerging cloud forensic challenge.

Legal Challenges were identified as jurisdiction, admissibility of digital forensic techniques and tools; prosecuting digital crimes; privacy; ethical issues; lack of sufficient support for civic prosecution or legal criminal prosecution.

Personnel-related Challenges were identified as semantic disparities in Cyber Forensics; insufficient qualified Cyber Forensic personnel; insufficient forensic knowledge and the reuse among personnel; strict Cyber Forensic investigator licensing requirements; and lack of formal unified digital forensic domain knowledge.

Lastly, Operational Challenges were identified as significant manual analysis and intervention; incidence detection, prevention and response; lack of standardized procedures and processes; and trust of Audit Trails (Vaciago, 2012; Mercuri, 2009; Bassett, Bass, & O’Brien, 2006; Liu, & Brown, 2006; Richard, & Roussev, 2006; Arthur, & Hein, 2004; Mohay, 2005).


This paper revealed several challenges faced by Cyber Forensics. These challenges can be categorized into five: hardware, software, cloud, legal and human. They can also be categorized into technical challenges, law enforcement or legal system challenges, personal-related challenges, and operational challenges. While the available literature has sufficient details on the technical aspects of Cyber Forensic investigation, the human element only seems to touch the surface. There is a huge gap in terms of understanding the emotional and cultural aspects of the stakeholders involved in the investigation process. This calls for a review of Cyber Forensics where elements of Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Cultural Intelligence (CQ) and People Intelligence (PQ) are further investigated for a better understanding.


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In the current era of technological advancements, there is an increasing interest of testing the lie detection methods. Different scholars have gained interest in testing whether lie detection is a science or myth. What is evident is that, in most cases, liars may not offer telltale signs of their dishonesty. As such, it is difficult to identify the persons who are telling the truth or those who tell lies. In most cases, a lie could be embedded in some truth. There is also a small difference between the people telling the truth and those who tell lies. A common mistake that has been made by lie detectors is putting so much emphasis on the nonverbal cues. For example, lie detectors neglect the actions of an individual when he or she is telling the truth. They only record the actions of liars when they are lying. Lie detectors have also proved to be overly confident in their skill of detection (Ask, Granhag, Juhlin, & Vrij, 2013). In this case, there have been a number of misconceptions when it comes to deceptions. This paper discusses the fact that lie detection is science rather that a myth believed by some proponents.


Lying can be defined using many approaches. Lying is seen as communication that is falsified and intended to benefit only one party. This classification covers a broad range of subjects – from humans to plants. In a plant, deception may be experienced in a situation where a male wasp is seduced by orchid flower, which produces smell creating an illusion of mating. The gainer is the orchid because, in the course of deception, the wasp acts as an agent of pollination. This approach is not conventionally used because it includes an act of misleading as a way of deception. Lying can be defined as an act that is meant to manipulate other people believe something he or she knows is untrue (Zuckerman, DePaulo, & Rosenthal, 1981; Krauss, 1981). Lying is a part of everyday life, sometimes causing harm and sometimes “white lies” may even benefit the lie receiver by acting as a social lubricant (Vrij, 2008).


Vrij (2008) argues that everybody has an idea of what lying is. Everybody knows that lying is something that is not acceptable in the society. The myth here is pretending that we seldom lie because humans cannot accept themselves as miserable liars. Since lying is unacceptable in society, people opt for others means of deceit. In the long run, they spend little time with liars and completely avoid them. Most individuals in the world are sick liars; they forget that they are lying and reveal their deceit by being nervous or avoiding eye contact. The author notes that people tend to be good detectors when monitoring their children, and close friends. Criminals accomplish their objective by deceiving others. Then there are professional lie catchers who are technically trained to catch lies. There has been a revolution in technology with the development of machines technically designed to detect lies. An example is the brain-scanner, which is used by researchers to monitor the thoughts and feeling of somebody directly (Vrij, 2008).

There is a big difference between good liars and poor lie detectors. Most people assume that they don’t lie and by so doing they are underestimating their ability to lie. There are many ways of telling why people believe that they are the worst liars than they thought. First, they overestimate how honest they are with their feelings and thought to others. By saying so, Vrij (2008) implied that people believe that their lies trend all the way. Second, the selfish act makes people see themselves as more morally upright than others (Kaplar & Gordon, 2004). When someone admits that he or she is a good liar, he or she complicates the good self-image. People will tend to disclose their white lies and hide dangerous lies (Elaad, 2003). This shows that it is easy to detect a dangerous lie compared to white lie because people will remember the lies that can be easily noticed. Lastly, people will remember instances when they lied and were detected that than instances when they lied successfully. When people forget how easily they can lie, they are underestimating their ability to lie (Vrij, 2008).


The reason why people lies go unnoticed is that no efforts are put in detecting them, and they do not want to know the truth. Vrij (2008) calls it the ostrich effect and states that there are at least three reasons as to why people don’t like to know or accept the truth. One, the truth may be bitter and people prefer to stay ignorant by believing a more “pleasant” lie. Second, people fear consequences that the truth may present. They are afraid of what they would need to do if they were to accept the truth. Third, people fear not knowing what to do if they came to know the truth.


Even though, lie detection has been used in many contexts, the technique has been misunderstood in many ways. Lie detection is one complex technique and requires a personal judgment. The scientific underpinnings used in lie detection are less straightforward than other tests like the breath-alcohol test. The nature of lie detection makes it interesting to analyze especially from the basis of science. It uses the methods and conclusions of a number of disciplines that deal with behavior and human physiology. Lie detection also offers a vital probability issue that is applicable in criminal law (O’Sullivan, 2007).

In 1895, a mix of pulse reading and blood pressure was used to investigate crime. Other experiments done in lie detection have used blood pressure, and respiratory recordings. The science of lie detection was equally tested by the polygraph created by Larson John. The polygraph used the three measurements (pulse, blood pressure, and respiration) in lie detection. The Keeler, made by Leonarder Keeler, introduced the galvanic response of the skin to the list. The key improvement in the Keeler is the ability to obviate and record the blood pressure distortions especially in the readings that could result from muscular flexing (Evans & Stanovich, 2013).

In most cases, the procedure used in lie detection such as the polygraph test is done by experienced examiners in a controlled environment. The examiner will engage in questions that depend on the preliminary interview results together with different circumstances and facts that create an accusation basis. Some questions would be variable depending on the individual being questioned. Many studies on lie detection have proposed the use of some systematically designed models as ways of measuring the physiological activities and creating the last credibility judgment (Frank & Ekman, 2004).

Even though lie detection appears extremely useful, a number of results obtained from lie detectors have been excluded from trial (Albrechtsen, Meissner, & Susa, 2009). There is a possibility that the validation and the verdict could be wrong just like the lie detector (Etcoff, Ekman, Magee, & Frank, 2000). In this case, lie detection procedures have no independent means of checking the phenomena which is lying or confirming whether the accused person lied.


Detecting liars and lies is not an easy task. Even professional lie detectors, like police officers and intelligence officers, fail to do so in most cases. Research shows that professionals also make wrong decisions and fail to distinguish between a lie and truth. One reason behind failing to detect a lie is due to the complexity of the task. There is no single response from a liar that a lie detector can rely on to truly capture a liar. A liar who is determined to lie will avoid being caught at all cost, and there will be an attempt to hide nonverbal, psychological and verbal signs. Liars will try at all cost to create an accurate impression to lie detectors to avoid being caught. They will employ informed tactics to fool whoever is trying to fool them, living the lie detector with mixed feelings about the situation. There are many errors committed by lie detectors that hinder them from knowing the truth; they may tend to focus more on signs that are not linked with the lie. This may be contributed to the fact that they were trained to do so. Some of the techniques the detectors are trained to might be well known by the liars thus making it hard for them to separate the truth from a lie (Vrij, 2008).

Lack of realism is another contributor to the lack of ability to detect lies. Many studies mention that a lie can be detected by observing how people are behaving, screening their speech and analyzing their psychological responses. When lie detectors are conversant with these principles, they are so proud to have the ability to detect deception. Research experts have claimed to have the capacity to detect lies, but they fail to support their study with evidence. Interestingly, lie detectors who have been trained to look for certain cues tend to perform worse than those who do not (Kassin & Fong, 1999; Mann, Vrij, & Bull, 2004).


Lie detection is a science and not a myth since the procedure used in lie detection follows a practical and intellectual activity involving a systematic study of behavior and structure of the natural and physical world using experiment and observation (Moore, Cappelli, Caron, Shaw, Spooner, & Trzeciak, 2011). The process of lie detection, however, could be improved if methods of testing the validity are improved.

While it is important to understand nonverbal, verbal, and physiological indicators of deceit, it is equally important for a lie detector to know which is indicator is more valuable. We sometimes tend to place more emphasis on nonverbal cues when detecting deception, however differences in cultural behaviors may define nonverbal indicators more than lying itself. This leads us to suggest that Emotional Intelligence (EQ), a combination of People Intelligence (PQ) and Cultural Intelligence (CQ), has a key role to play in lie detection.


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2.Ask, K., Granhag, P. A., Juhlin, F., & Vrij, A. (2013). Intending or pretending? Automatic evaluations of goal cues discriminate true and false intentions. Applied Cognitive Psychology , 27, 173–177.

3.Elaad, E. (2003). Effects of feedback on the overestimated capacity to detect lies and the underestimated ability to tell lies. Applied Cognitive Psychology , 17, 349–363.

4.Etcoff, N. L., Ekman, P., Magee, J. J., & Frank, M. G. (2000). Lie detection and language comprehension. Nature , 405, 159.

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7.Frank, M. G., & Feeley, T. H. (2003). To catch a liar: Challenges for research in lie detection training. Journal of Applied Communication Research , 31, 58-75.

8.Kaplar, M. E., & Gordon, A. K. (2004). The enigma of altruistic lying: Perspec- tive differences in what motivates and justifies lie telling within romantic relationships. Personal Relationships , 11, 489–507.

9.Kassin, S. M., & Fong, C. T. (1999). “I’m innocent!”: Effects of training on judgments of truth and deception in the interrogation room. Law and Human Behavior , 23, 499–516.

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