According to the Guradian (Sample, 2017) “New human rights that would protect people from having their thoughts and other brain information stolen, abused or hacked have been proposed by researchers.”, which really destroy the question of this article. However, this article will not focus on the aim of hacking the human brain, nor the existing technology has been developed for hospitals to diagnose or treat medical conditions as to control Parkinson’s symptoms and other conditions. Also, this article is not about brainwave monitoring devices that allow people to play video games with their minds, or any other tools that claim to boost mental performance (Dredge, 2015), still it’s good to know such techniques and tools do exist.

According to (Rafael Yuste, 2017), Scientists are warning that AI could hack your brain. And control your thoughts, decisions and emotions. The scientists use an example of a paralyzed man. Participating in a clinical trial of a brain-computer interface. If the patient disagrees with the medical team. The AI connected to his brain could read his thoughts. And interpret them as a command to harm the researchers. Despite no direct command being given by the patient. The scientists say it is crucial to consider the possible consequences now. Including a person’s right to a private mental life. Investment in the neurotechnology industry has reached $100 million a year. The scientist are calling for new ethical rules. To ensure that AI does not exploit and manipulate people. four ethical priorities for neurotechnologies and AI. lay out recommendations relating to four areas of concern within neurotechnology and IA: privacy and consent; agency and identity; augmentation; and bias

Do you think AI is a threat… Or an opportunity?

Sorry if you are disappointed.

The article tries to covering and through some light over addiction to pleasure and using hidden desire of human mind, if not creating fake desires for the brain to run behind and ask for more and more, and more. As creating a field of rising human’s brain, to be used whenever is needed and by whoever having the power to do so, almost as the Matrix showing a field of raising human’s buddies (Wachowski & Wachowski, 1999). As highlighted within a lot of science-fiction movies, alteration of human’s memories or even transfer it to other human as showed within the Altered Carbon TV Series (Kalogridis, 2018). Maybe it is just another game, or just to move a level up, but when it is reality, there are a lot of ingredients for a teenager to be the most wanted criminal (which still could be questioned by sample questions (ABU ZUHRI, 10 QUESTIONS TO KNOW IF YOUR CHILD TODAY MIGHT BE THE MOST WANTED CRIMINAL TOMORROW, 2018)) or just waiting to be a person with the name in all TV channels and media. And the beneficial is always the man in power, not the human who did the action, but it’s the man who had up-used and misused other human brain. And always there is illusion of religion, money, men, women, children, and list go on, for action to be considered.

Still, this paper does not discuss the motivation behind human’s mind hacking, it is just to throw a light over some of the side effects of video games motivating killing, series make easier killing a human being as a norm, videos of superhero killing bad people without referring to a low, outside the law, violence music, video and music with hidden messages using psychological steganography, and nothing more important than brain to be not protected by lowering the brain protection by chemical treatment which helps manipulate the symptoms of early age of anxiety and depression, claiming helping with symptoms. Also, raising human’s mind over plastic foods (which should not be eaten by human), and the vital when a child’s brain is being affected with chemicals, either from the food eaten directly and/or by the parents’ habit of eating.

And yes, this is not technical psychological paper,


Unfortunately, this is not the 80s era, it’s the cyber era, however, huge part of existing treatments look a like the 80s era. It’s the era which human could create multiple virtual persona, and one of them could worth 500 Million Euro, one of them engage in gaming according to Fadi (ABU ZUHRI, HOW ONE OF YOUR VIRTUAL PERSONA COULD WORTH 500 M EURO, 2017). Online gaming has become a popular activity for children, teenagers, young and old adults according to (ABU ZURHI, 2017). For instance, an online game where a player interact with a certain monster, defeating and killing the monster, the player is rewarded depending on the monster’s response. Even an avatar of Super Hero kill the criminals and safe the innocent, without referring to court or system. Killing become the norms just to progress to another level within the game. However as much as you play, and long, actions transferred from Conscious to Collective Unconscious and become the reality or the option number one, unfortunately, human’s brain might reached the level to considered killing in reality would be option number one too, especially if some else had label the one to be killed as criminal by another group without the court and without judgmental system.


According to Lindsay (Dodgson, 2018), hip-hop and rock could make the cheese taste better. Also, as per Masaru (Emoto, 2000) thoughts, words, music have huge effect over water, when the water is frozen its crystals will be beautiful or ugly depending on whatever used were good or bad. And no different, effects of music on the human body as claimed by (Sharma, 2017) might improves memory, attention, physical coordination and mental development. The classical music stimulates the regeneration of brain cells. Certain music improves the mood, intelligence, motivation and concentration. It also improves the quality of life and aids in physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs.

However, according to (Schleiffarth, 2017) Music can affect your mood. The easiest way to understand why music has such a powerful effect on the mind is to monitor brain activity while someone is listening to music. Most people have different music preferences, but interestingly enough, taste in music isn’t the most important factor—an emotional connection is. And according (ASSAGIOLI, n.d.) The harmful effects of music on body and mind are due to various factors. The most important of these is the kind or quality of the music. But there are others of a secondary character which can be influential and at times even decisive. These are: the amount of the music; the combination and succession of different kinds of music; the psychophysiological constitution of each listener; the particular emotional state in which he or she is at the time.

Not to mention, subliminal messages and backwards talks could be used within the music industries. Music therefore helps to do away with negative subliminal messages and works by aiming on one’s subconscious mind. According (Kolenda, 2019) subliminal messages in music do exist, one famous example of subliminal messages in music can be found in Judas Priest. In 1990, the band was accused of putting backward messages of “do it” in a song. And those messages allegedly caused the suicide of two male teenagers. The judge found no evidence, and the band was cleared of the charges.

Nevertheless, can subliminal messages influence your thoughts and behavior? Yes, they can. However, subliminal messages can’t make you do something you wouldn’t want to do, if you have the good immunity.

Music still could be used to help improve memory and emotional healing, and overcome stress and pain (Williams, 2019). And according (Kennaway, 2011) The link between the hypnotic power of music and the nerves was underlined in the neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot’s experiments with hypnosis at the Salpêtrière in Paris later in the nineteenth century. He used gongs and tuning forks on patients to provoke cataleptic fits, one of his stages of hysterical hypnosis.

The question could Music be used for hypnosis without the human consent?


Advertisers aren’t the only people getting criticized. Movie editors from Disney have been criticized for putting subliminal messages in movies. Here are a few examples. Walt Disney’s “Aladdin” Subliminal Message? (AZDigitalTransfers, 2011), Little Mermaid Erection (Buckley, 2006) and Lion King Subliminal Message (Ashton, 2013).

Still, a lot of The studies of violence in mass media analyzes the degree of correlation between themes of violence in media sources (particularly violence in video games, television and films) with real-world aggression and violence over time. Many social scientists support the correlation (Anderson, et al., 2003), and a lot of other researchers do not agree with such correlation.

However, would it be part of norms, if human get to used to something over, and over again and again. Therefore, aggression and violence become the reality and the motivation to live. Well, human fight the injustices system outside the justice system, by killing other human become acceptable, as The Punisher (Lightfoot, 2017-2019). Might for a lot of other human the answer will be NO, however for a lot of the other fan of such TV Series, Yes would be the easy answer. Well targeting other murderers be acceptable, as Dexter (Manos, 2006-2013), still outside the justice system.


Something as harmless as feeding your child dairy, gluten, soda and sugar could have long-term damage to their emotional development. According to Dr. Bob, the drugless doctor, states that children having diet with high levels of trans fat (partially hydrogenated fat) are at a higher risk of developing depression and ADHD (Attention Deficiency and Hyperactivity Disorder) (Dr.Bob, 2016). Not to mention that Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is strictly out of the diet, just as plastic is not to be eaten by Humans (ABU ZUHRI, COULD HUMANS BE MORE INTELLIGENT?, 2018) (ABU ZUHRI, INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BODY AND HOW TO BE SMARTER, 2018).

As a parent you need to be aware of your children’s behaviour and how well they handle emotions. In case of extreme behaviours it is wise to consult a professional psychologist.


According to Batelaan, Van Balkom, & Stein (Batelaan, 2012), the management of anxiety disorders and depression should be handled and controlled with the help of a therapist. It is very important that individuals with anxiety and depression get a good evaluation in order to eliminate bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a state wherein emotions can move between very low and very high levels of obsession and despair and is being treated very differently from the anxiety disorder with depression.

All people feel sad sometimes. Sadness is a normal emotion which can make life more exciting. Nearly at all times sadness is accompanied by loss. People are frequently sad when they say farewell to a loved one. The suffering is even deeper when an intimate relationship ends or when a dear friend is dead. However, sadness helps people to enjoy happiness. When one’s mood finally changes from sadness to joy, such changes will be more enjoyably and appreciated (Tay & Kuykendall, 2016).

For a teenager, depression might be a sample reaction of bullying physically in school or virtually within the social media. According to the Sun (Cope, 2019) the broken generation with child suicide rates soaring, not due to the love of dying, just to run out of their emotions.

According to Rachel (Kelly, 2019) the argument is not to ignore medication in treating depression, but to be aware of the side effects and relying on pills over a long period. As the doctors must not rush patients into stopping the anti-depression medication, due to the side effects from withdrawal might be worst than staying on the drugs. It’s vital for the doctors not to rush patients nor accept the request of patients for anti-depression medication to be the first option.

We get sick when we subject ourselves to unhealthy thoughts (the proverbial rotten tomatoes). Mental health is where problems start. Mental health can be improved by smiling, mindful meditation of how thoughts play in our mind and breathing deeply (Ea, 2018). It would be valuable for students to learn when and how to accept whatever is between their hands and overcome depression, anxiety and panic attacks.


I could not find better ingredients for a teenager mind to be up-used, and as brains in field just waiting to be collected and manipulated with the man in power. Addiction could be cured with professional help, and with breaking the repetitive and routine actions. Union to each other and be part of your family, have huge role of overcoming the worst.

According to (Beacham, 2017), three tips to help kids protect themselves from ‘Brain Hacking’, Self-Control (delay gratification), the differentiation between the needs and wants, and how to control searching the internet and be familiar with giant internet companies ads business.

And according to (Rafael Yuste, 2017), individual identity (our bodily and mental integrity) and agency (our ability to choose our actions) must be protected as basic human rights. Scientific or technological decisions are based on a narrow set of systemic, structural or social concepts and norms, the resulting technology can privilege certain groups and harm others. History indicates that profit hunting will often trump social responsibility in the corporate world. And even if, at an individual level, most technologists set out to benefit humanity, they can come up against complex ethical dilemmas for which they aren’t prepared. We think that mindsets could be altered and the producers of devices better equipped by embedding an ethical code of conduct into industry and academia. Medical students are taught about patient confidentiality, non-harm and their duties of beneficence and justice, and are required to take the Hippocratic Oath to adhere to the highest standards of the profession.

Each human having a different journey, and some of us, might have a ‘dark passenger’, a vulnerability (which should not be up-used by someone else) as disappointment, shame, depression, anxiety, grief and loss, should not be a reason for our valiance nor an excuse. Managing them was not a subject taught in school (ABU ZUHRI, SEVEN ELEMENTS IF TAUGHT IN SCHOOL YESTERDAY, MAY HAVE RESULTED IN MORE INTELLIGENCE TODAY, 2018).

Asking for professional help might be the best option not only to you, but for a lot of people souls could be saved. Killing any other human in real life should not be an option, as it’s not another video games for leveling up. Killing another human could not be an option due to the existing role of music in our brains. Killing should not be an option, as we are not living in movie and we are not the superhero outside the justice system. And killing should not be an option, in case we lost someone we care about, just because accepting our emotions were not that easy. We do need to remind ourselves, saving one human being for dying, as valuable as we saving all the human, and killing one human being, is as considered killing everyone else in this life. It cannot be stressed enough the fact that each individual needs to map his or her own personal journey towards holistic health. There is no single solution that could fit us all.


ABU ZUHRI, F. (2017). HOW ONE OF YOUR VIRTUAL PERSONA COULD WORTH 500 M EURO. Retrieved from ZAHF.ME: https://www.zahf.me/how-one-of-your-virtual-persona-could-worth-500000000-00-euro/

ABU ZUHRI, F. (2018). 10 QUESTIONS TO KNOW IF YOUR CHILD TODAY MIGHT BE THE MOST WANTED CRIMINAL TOMORROW. Retrieved from ZAHF.ME: https://www.zahf.me/10-questions-to-know-if-your-child-today-might-be-the-most-wanted-criminal-tomorrow/

ABU ZUHRI, F. (2018). COULD HUMANS BE MORE INTELLIGENT? Retrieved from ZAHF.ME: https://www.zahf.me/could-humans-be-more-intelligent/

ABU ZUHRI, F. (2018). INTELLIGENT COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BODY AND HOW TO BE SMARTER. Retrieved from ZAHF.ME: https://www.zahf.me/intelligent-communication-within-the-body-and-how-to-be-smarter/

ABU ZUHRI, F. (2018). SEVEN ELEMENTS IF TAUGHT IN SCHOOL YESTERDAY, MAY HAVE RESULTED IN MORE INTELLIGENCE TODAY. Retrieved from ZAHF.ME: https://www.zahf.me/seven-elements-if-taught-in-school-yesterday-may-have-resulted-in-more-intelligence-today/

ABU ZURHI, F. (2017). HOW YOU STILL EXIST HERE, WHEN YOU ARE ALREADY THERE. Retrieved from ZAHF.ME: https://www.zahf.me/how-you-still-exist-here-when-you-are-already-there/

Anderson, C. A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L. R., Johnson, J. D., Linz, D., . . . Wartella, E. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4 (3): 81–110.

Ashton, S. (2013). Lion King Subliminal Message. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/edtwq4P8jUM

ASSAGIOLI, R. (n.d.). The Harmful Effects of Music on Body and Mind. Retrieved from The Unbounded Spirit: https://theunboundedspirit.com/the-harmful-effects-of-music-on-body-and-mind/

AZDigitalTransfers. (2011). Walt Disney’s “Aladdin” Subliminal Message? Retrieved from https://youtu.be/1QYYOuQGEp0

Batelaan, N. M. (2012). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of panic disorder: an update. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 15 (3), 403–415.

Beacham, S. (2017, AUG). Tips to Help Kids Protect Themselves from ‘Brain Hacking’. Retrieved from Susan Beacham: http://susanbeacham.com/tips-help-kids-protect-from-brain-hacking/

Buckley, M. (2006). Little Mermaid Erection. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/InFLnzeQjWw

Cope, E. (2019). THE BROKEN GENERATION With child suicide rates soaring, we find out what’s pushing our kids to the brink. Retrieved from The Sun: https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/8676175/fabulous-investigates-rise-child-suicide/

Dodgson, L. (2018). A cheesemaker is Switzerland is playing hip-hop and rock to his Emmental to make it taste better. Insider.

Dr.Bob. (2016). Mental Health. Retrieved from The Drugless Doctor: https://druglessdoctor.com/health-topics/mental-health/

Dredge, S. (2015, JUN). BBC reveals mind control experiment – for choosing what to watch next. Retrieved from Guardian News & Media Limited: https://www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jun/18/bbc-mind-control-experiment-iplayer

Ea, P. (2018, March 18). We need to talk about mental health. Retrieved from youtube.com: https://youtu.be/6YbWRqsnHdo

Emoto, M. (2000). Messages from Water, Vol. 1. Hado Kyoiku Sha Co., Ltd.

Kalogridis, L. (Director). (2018). Altered Carbon [Motion Picture].

Kelly, R. (2019). It was frightening to struggle with antidepressants, but now I know there is another way. Retrieved from NewStatesman: https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/health/2019/03/it-was-frightening-struggle-antidepressants-now-i-know-there-another-way

Kennaway, J. (2011). Musical Hypnosis: Sound and Selfhood from Mesmerism to Brainwashing. Retrieved from OXFORD ACADEMIC: https://academic.oup.com/shm/article/25/2/271/1739124

Kolenda, N. (2019). Subliminal Messages: Do They Really Work? Retrieved from Nick Kolenda: https://www.nickkolenda.com/subliminal-messages/

Lightfoot, S. (Director). (2017-2019). The Punisher [Motion Picture].

Manos, J. (Director). (2006-2013). Dexter [Motion Picture].

PATEL, J. K. (2018, FEB). After Sandy Hook, More Than 400 People Have Been Shot in Over 200 School Shootings. Retrieved from The New York Times Company: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/02/15/us/school-shootings-sandy-hook-parkland.html

Rafael Yuste, S. G. (2017). Four ethical priorities for neurotechnologies and AI. Nature 551, 159–163.

Sample, I. (2017, APR). New human rights to protect against ‘mind hacking’ and brain data theft proposed. Retrieved from Guardian News & Media Limited: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/apr/26/new-human-rights-to-protect-against-mind-hacking-and-brain-data-theft-proposed

Schleiffarth, T. (2017). What Happens to Your Brain When You Listen to Music. Retrieved from selecthealth: https://selecthealth.org/news-and-articles/2017/02/what-happens-to-your-brain-when-you-listen-to-music

Sharma, S. (2017). The Effect of Music on Human Health and Brain Growth. Retrieved from Owlcation: https://owlcation.com/social-sciences/The-Effect-of-Music-on-Human-Health-and-Brain-Growth

Tay, L., & Kuykendall, L. (2016). Why self-reports of happiness and sadness may not necessarily contradict bipolarity. a psychometric review and proposal. Emotion Review, 9 (2), 146-154.

Wachowski, L., & Wachowski, L. (Directors). (1999). The Matrix [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0133093/

Williams, M. (2019). Health Benefits of Music Therapy. Retrieved from CPR Certified: https://www.cprcertified.com/health-benefits-of-music-therapy





A credit card is a payment card containing virtual money that is handed out to users to allow them to make payments to the merchant based on the creditor’s promise to the user to pay the deposit and other agreed commissions. The card organizer (frequently the bank, or a other financial institution) makes a negotiable account and provides a credit card to the cardholder, where the cardholder may request loans to make payments to the merchant or as a cash advance (Yilmazkuday & Yazgan, 2011). In addition, credit cards combine payment services with credit extension. The complex pricing in the credit card industry limits customers’ ability to make comparisons between different credit providers in order to ensure the competitiveness of the sector and maximize the benefits of the credit industry. As a result, various legislators have controlled the fees of the credit card.


Credit fuels consumption and therefore functions as an extra demand for production. Credit is the ultimate answer to implementing the statement “I want it now”. But credit creates an illusion of an exaggerated financial potential. Lie (2017) argues that most people who are used to using credit cards often fail to see that their red accounts have reached the monthly salary level, or went even beyond. Furthermore, some are not sufficiently enough aware of the cost attached to the loan / credit taken, in the form of the most recent interest rates applicable. Today people like going cashless when buying almost anything with a credit card, such us: a simple TV, cell phone, car, even an apartment or a country house. Without a doubt, credit is a very practical and profitable discovery made by the humanity, however it comes with a number of negative impacts as well.

Hodson, Dwyer, and Neilson (2014) point out that a credit card is different from a payment card and the amount used must be fully repaid each month, otherwise significant cumulative interest rates will be triggered. On the other hand, credit cards allow consumers to obtain a permanent debt balance, with interest payments. A credit card is unlike a debit card that can be used as virtual money by the cardholder. Themba and Tumedi (2012) point out that the credit card is not like the debit card, as a credit card is typically a third party that pays the merchant and is compensated by the customer, while the charge card issues the buyer’s payment up to a later date in a cashless society. Nevertheless, credit cards have some negative impacts.

In fact, reaching the credit limit is a bad idea. Certain countries apply a credit scoring which determines your credit limit. The percentage of credit a person uses in relation to the available individual income must not exceed a certain percentage of their credit score. Paying the monthly credit card bills promptly could allow the user to build a better score faster, but there are disadvantages. In accordance with the terms, it may be wise to pay using a credit card in a smart city that promotes a cashless economy. However, credit card companies entice users to spend more by giving them loyalty points that can be redeemed for benefits. Such marketing strategy determines users to look for more ways to spend and earn points (McHugh & Ranyard, 2012).

According to Lie (2017), various bills are not equal and one has to assess each of them to decide which one is best for paying with a credit card. There are pros and cons of paying bills with credit cards. Anyone who wants to pay bills with a credit card must have discipline and must not spend the money that he or she normally pays the bills with. The user has to pay the credit card bill with cash or from a debit card, not from other credit cards. Lie (2017) also points out that it is very important to keep the credit card balance under 30 percent of the limit. The high use of credit cards can negatively affect the credit position of the user and even damage their credit worthiness. If the users pay bills they cannot afford using credit cards, it can result in paying a lot of interest when using virtual money.

In both cases, it should be noted that going cashless frequently in a smart city confirms that the purchase price of goods is much greater than the actual price of the product. It is referred to as “I want it now”, and it also includes excessive payment for the goods. The only thing that needs to be done is to compare the amount with the rate of rising debt. Everybody knows that credit encourages consumption and, therefore, production. However, every borrower of a loan must offer certain guarantees for the loan commitments (Hodson, Dwyer, & Neilson, 2014). Over indebtedness leads to a need to an increase in the income of debtors and, therefore, to a chronic excess of the rate of consumption, depending on the contractual guarantees. Think for a moment that everything a person uses is purchased on credit. All the things one uses and buys, such as the TV, the restaurant bills, the furniture bought on credit are adding up to a point where the user’s monthly salary cannot keep up with prompt payments.

Many people do not have any savings because almost all of their salaries are used to pay off the loans they use. These loans are called subprime and if these people were to lose their jobs, the following day in front of their houses there will be a long queue of creditors looking for guarantees on payment obligations that the debtors got themselves into. Therefore, most people are anxious to get decently well paying jobs with enough wages to meet or exceed their monthly payment obligations. McHugh and Ranyard (2012) indicate that if the customers do not pay the credit in due time, their accounts are “fined”. In the worst case scenario, their property may end up under the hammer. If the same situation continues, when one cannot pay the loan, it happens on a global scale, that the property will be auctioned off, however no one can buy it at the auction because the neighbours of their neighbours will find themselves in the same situation, as it was the case in the 2008 financial crisis, or Detroit housing market.

Time passes very fast. If we were to consider some time back, the purchase of an item on credit took on a “state” role. Yilmazkuday & Yazgan (2011) argue that today, purchasing on credit is a common and routine activity that has nothing to do with stringent government approvals. Many people do it, often times without thinking about the results. It is not a secret that if people do not have enough money to pay the total purchase price, for example for a washing machine, a car, or a new apartment, they will take it on credit or loan. From a rational and practical point of view, credit is a direct alternative to loan stacking.

Meltzer (2013) argues that people can be better without a credit card because they can learn to have self-control. At best, the reluctance to have self-control when people have money can deprive them of their financial security. In the worst case, an impulsive attitude towards purchases can also negatively affect other forms of their lives. Yes, the restriction can be both difficult and annoying, but there are other valuable rewards of these people being able to afford their homes.

An often-overlooked benefit of credit cards is the payment protection feature. It’s called ‘chargeback’ and it means that if you don’t receive the goods you bought, you may be able to get your money back. Some card companies also refund the charge if the customer is not happy with the product or service (Money Team, 2018).


To sum up, people need to be smart with their credit cards. Here are a few tips: don’t charge food purchases, create a budget, read the fine print, don’t buy what you cannot afford and simply leave your credit card at home (Khaleej Times, 2018).

While offering the charm of easy and quick money, credit cards have fuelled a cashless economy and destroyed financial prudence. If you want it, you can get – seems to be the motto for the younger generation that doesn’t seem to know the difference between what is an asset and what is a liability. Once caught in the web trap of paying off interest on the principal amount, people could very well be tempted to criminal behaviour to pay off their debt. Could we be stoking a new generation that is financial less secure and therefore more inclined to beg, borrow or steal, in order to buy their next object of desire?

Some say that paying with hard cash gives the product a higher psychological value than that which is bought with a single swipe of a credit card where you don’t have to pay anything until the next bill is generated. Are we not promoting irresponsible consumerism and individual bankruptcy, with all the implications involved, in the name of going cashless or priceless?


  1. Hodson, R., Dwyer, R., & Neilson, L. (2014). Credit Card Blues: The Middle Class and the Hidden Costs of Easy Credit. Retrieved 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707673

  2. Khaleej Times. (2018, August 25). Be smart with your credit card.

  3. Lie, C. (2017). The “Negative” Credit Card Effect: Credit Cards as Spending-Limiting stimuli in New Zealand. The Psychological Record , 60 (3), 399–411.

  4. McHugh, S., & Ranyard, R. (2012). Credit repayment decisions: The role of longterm consequence information, economic and psychological factors. Review of Behavioral Finance , 4 (2), 98-112.

  5. Meltzer, H., Bebbington, P., Brugha, T., Farrell, M., & Jenkins, R. (2013). The relationship between personal debt and specific common mental disorders. European Journal of Public Health , 23 (1), 108–113.

  6. Money Team. (2018, July 1). Visa, Mastercard & Amex Chargeback. Retrieved 2018 from https://www.moneysavingexpert.com/shopping/visa-mastercard-chargeback/

  7. Themba, G., & Tumedi, C. B. (2012). Credit Card Ownership and Usage Behaviour in Botswana. International Journal of Business Administration , 3 (6).

  8. Yilmazkuday, H., & Yazgan, M. E. (2011). Effects of credit and debit cards on the currency demand. Applied Economics , 2115-2123.





Using Projective Tests have become quite common in Forensic Psychology. This paper reflects upon the role of Projective Tests within Forensics Psychology as a tool to decode criminal behaviour.


Forensic Psychology is the branch of science that provides a clear meeting point between law and human behaviour (Ioannou, Canter, Youngs, & Synnott, 2015). It entails measuring critical legal practices, especially the one pertaining to professional witness and testimony within the context of the investigation. The most significant and interesting issue within Forensic Psychology is the ability of witness to provide a clear and error-free testimony in the courtroom concerning the incidence, information that can be verified to be legally correct. In order to have a non-doubtful testimony, the Forensic Psychologist must possess a deeper know-how about rules and regulations regarding the legal system and be able to comprehend them inside out. In other words, they must comprehend the entire judicial system.

A trained Forensic Psychologist is confident in providing quality testimony that avoids confusion in the courtrooms. Costanzo (2013) points out that Forensic Psychologists are specialists in human behaviour. Neuropsychologists, specialists in the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours, are required by courtrooms to discuss issues relating to the brain and human behaviour. They may further be used to discern whether an individual is proficient in the trial.

Neal (2016) indicates that most of the queries asked by Forensic Psychologists are connected to the legal system and the answers are in a language that can be understood by everyone in the court. It is always advisable for any Forensic Psychologist to ensure that he or she is able to translate the information from a psychological perspective to a courtroom perspective. This will ensure that the case gets the treatment it deserves.

According to Costanzo (2013), Forensic Psychologists are resourceful personnel who uphold dignity in their practices. They are called upon to train other people in the various fields of the profession. They work with police departments to ensure criminal issues are dealt with in a manner that is legally clear. Interestingly, they help in the judicial selection of personnel in the United States of America.

In addition, Forensic Psychologists aid in enacting laws. They are trained to ensure they can fully handle behaviours of the victims of crisis and suicidal practices. They also offer counselling to affected families (Ioannou, Canter, Youngs, & Synnott, 2015).


A Projective Test is a personality test aimed at letting individuals respond to unclear stimuli, internal conflicts and presumably examining in-depth emotions displayed by the individual (Bornstein, 2007). It is in contrary to a self-report test or an objective test that is linked to a structured method as responses are evaluated about presumed common standards, for instance, an exam with multiple choices. Similarly, they are restricted to the exam details. The answers to the predicted test are detailed for a reason as opposed to the basis of presumptions on the meaning, for instance, in the objective analysis. Projective Tests originate from psychoanalysis, which states that people have unconscious motivations as well as attitudes that are beyond their conscious awareness.

The Austrian neurologist, Sigmund Freud, is known as the founder of psychoanalysis, which is based on a dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was also well known for his analysis on psychosexual development of an individual (Patel, 2013). Freudian psychology emphasized the importance of understanding unconscious information as a predictor of our everyday behaviour. He came up with the concept projecting one’s own unconscious onto a person or object (AllPsych, 2018).

According to Miller (2015), the essential theoretical basis in Projective Test relates to given questions raised; the responses will be consciously stipulated as well as socially tested. The answers are not linked to the unconsciousness of the respondent or the implicit motivations or views. The respondent’s in-depth motives are not necessarily recognized as conscious by the respondent, or he/ she may be unable to express themselves verbally or in an appropriate structure as guided by the interviewer. Advocates of the Projective Test emphasize that the uncertainty of provocations given in the test enables subjects to give out their hidden thoughts that fail to be captured by other tests. From the 1980s to the 1990s, research conducted has shown that implicit motivation is reflected in the increased use of tools linked to the research.

Rorschach Inkblot is a widely known Projective Test established in 1921 to aid diagnosis of schizophrenia (Hatano, Yamada, Nakagawa, Nanri, Kawase, & Kenji, 2014). The subjects’ perceptions of inkblots are recorded and analysed using psychological interpretation or even algorithms. The reactions are then evaluated in many ways by considering not only the information given but also the duration it took before a response is made. Other variables considered are – how the given response compares to other people’s perceptions for similar drawing, and lastly, the aspect of the picture and how it was focused. Experts are consulted to conduct Projective Test like Rorschach Test in coming up with consistent and valid outcomes.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is identified as a critical Projective Test in which a person evaluates unclear events of others, and he or she is interviewed to narrate some aspects of the scene, for instance, what caused the scene, what are the feelings of the people and what are the possible outcomes. The above process assesses the subject’s descriptions while discovering their motivations, conflicts, as well as outlooks. Researchers may employ scoring systems aimed to establish a reliable methodology of expressed thoughts in addition to behaviours.

The Szondi test is a nonverbal projective personality test developed by Léopold Szondi. Szondi lists eight human drive needs that are linked to action. A Szondi test involves showing facial photographs to a person, the photographs are displayed in six groups of eight each. The subject is asked to select the most appealing and most repulsive photos in each group. The selection provides an indication of the satisfied and unsatisfied needs of the subject’s personality (Zaffaroni & Oliveir, 2013).

To sum up, Projective Test relates to the respondent’s perceptions, answers, motivations and unconsciousness attitudes (Cariola, 2014).


According to Sloane (1992), behavioural analysis is the science that relates to the way a person or animal conducts oneself, to his surroundings and to others. Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer (1991) defined it as an organized study of variables influencing the behavioural patterns of the organisms. Behaviour Analyst Certification Board (2017) on the other hand, said that behavioural analysis is a scientific study focusing on the principles of learning and behaviour.

The study aims to provide understanding, give explanation, classification and prediction on the behaviour. This science of behavioural analysis is not similar to other areas of psychological studies or fields that attempts to dissect behaviour (Sloane, 1992). The science of behavioural analysis is commonly used in detecting mental aptitude, undertaking behavioural assessments, determining appropriate treatment plans for mental patients, training practitioners and as well as in crime investigations (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017).

In the study of behavioural analysis, there were two primary and distinct fields of study that came into existence and these are the experimental analysis of behaviour and applied behaviour analysis. The experimental analysis of behavioural analysis is the scientific foundation of the discipline in which various empirical studies, research, literatures and data on behavioural analysis had been accumulated over the years in the furtherance of the understanding of this science. It is where the applied behavioural analysis came about. (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017)

Applied behavioural analysis is a methodical approach that aims to influence the established vital social behaviour by identifying relevant and similar environmental variables thereby producing a significant behavioural change as a result of the usage of such findings (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017). The latter aspect of behavioural analysis comes into play when it is conducted in a real-world setting with raw and unadulterated subject study rather that conducting it in laboratories (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968).


Emotional Intelligence (EQ) as a concept was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990) as a kind of social intelligence, distinct from general intelligence. It refers to the capacity to track one’s personal emotions and that of others, distinguish between them and make use of this information as a reference for one’s behaviour, actions or views. EQ was soon extended to include an individual’s capacity to accurately perceive, assess and express emotions; the capacity to understand and appreciate emotions; and the capacity to regulate these emotions in order to spur emotional, as well as intellectual, development (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). From this, one can see that the concept had evolved through time to encompass many emotional facets, as well as their relationship with other forms of human intelligence. Given this extensive definition, there is no question that EQ can play a pivotal role in the behaviour, perceptions and dispositions of individuals within organisations and as professionals and employees. There are many measures to assess a person’s EQ reflecting the differences among academics and experts on how EQ is treated and analysed. Among these tests are Emotional Quotient Inventory or the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test and the Mayer-Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Harms & Crede, 2010).

The novelty of the idea behind EQ made it an interesting subject of inquiry in the field of management and organisational studies. Due to the far reaching coverage and implications of EQ for organisations across industries and nature of work, many scholars and researchers had attempted to study EQ in an attempt to better understand its dynamics and how it can be harnessed by organisations to their advantage. Goleman (1998) popularised the concept of EQ initially espoused by Salovey and Mayer (1990). He came to define the concept as the ability to recognise one’s feelings and that of others to motivate one’s self and to manage these emotions personally and in the course of one’s interaction with others. He formulated a theory on EQ that is directly tied to performance since he believes that EQ has direct bearing in work and organisational effectiveness, in particular in forecasting performance in different activities from sales to top leadership (Goleman, 1998).

Bar-On (1997) defined EQ as an umbrella concept comprising non-cognitive abilities and competencies which aid one in overcoming environmental pressures and demands. He advanced a model of non-cognitive intelligences made up of five broad areas from the personality domain, including intra-personal and inter-personal capacities, ability to adapt, stress management and general mood, such as happiness and optimism. On the part of companies, this illustrates relevance of managing and tapping the EQ of their personnel. Because these domains have a bearing on the outlook of employees and how they will respond to the demands of work, as well as changes within organisations, interest in EQ heightened.

While there are people who have a higher innate emotional quotient than others, EQ skills can be learned and honed through steady commitment, dedication and practice. For this to happen, one must have a sustained drive to learn, obtain relevant feedback and continuously buttress their EQ abilities (Serrat, 2009). Indeed, EQ is becoming a new benchmark or yardstick by which employees and prospective candidates for new posts are assessed. People are not just rated for their intelligence, training, work experience, and industry expertise, but also for their ability to handle and manage their emotions within themselves and in the course of their interaction with their co-workers (Serrat, 2009).

While studies on the implications of EQ in various sectors, such as health, education and clinical psychology, had been made, EQ’s applications on the workplace generated the greatest amount of inquiry (Jordan, Ashkanasy, & Ascough, 2007). This can be attributed to the desire on the part of organisations to search for new ways to enhance performance, as well as the growing desire of managers to be able to forecast or assess the behaviour of their subordinates in the actual work setting (Jordan, et al, 2007). The promising benefits and advantages offered by EQ, therefore, attracted the attention of many companies and organisations.

It would be in the great interest of organisations to tap into their employees’ EQ and marshal this tremendous force to advance their company’s well being. Improved sales, enhanced recruitment and retention of highly qualified and competent staff and more effective leadership are among the promises of EQ (Serrat, 2009). Therefore, possessing a great degree of EQ proves to be a great advantage. Weisinger (1998) pointed out that people with high EQ levels are said to enjoy more success in their chosen careers. In turn, this idea of self-fulfilment, happiness and contentment with one’s work is a great motivating factor for employees to excel in their work. Jordan et al (2002) noted that such people also experience less job insecurity compared to those with lower EQ levels. This job insecurity would then act as a de-motivator, contributing to the subpar performance of affected personnel. Jordan et al (2002) also found out that an employee’s commitment to an organisation is moderated by his or her emotional intelligence; hence those with high EQ are more likely to have high affective commitment even at times of extreme work pressure or stress. EQ was also revealed to be positively connected with altruism, job commitment and satisfaction and affective organisational commitment (Carmeli, 2003). Carmeli (2003) also maintained that EQ can improve contextual performance and reduce distress allowing employees to think and act in a more emotionally intelligent manner. Wong and Law (2002) supported the claim of a positive linkage between EQ and organisational commitment and added that EQ can mitigate turnover intention of subordinates. EQ aids in organisational effectiveness not only through enhanced work commitment, but also through boosting morale, teamwork and improved health (Cherniss, 2001). Thus, it makes sense to say that people with high EQ constitute a pool of worthy and much coveted labour force.

Aside from reinforcing commitment to the profession and the company, EQ also had an effect on inter-personal relationships. It was said that people with greater EQ are more likely to develop harmonious relations with their peers in the workplace (Maslow, 1943). This is because such individuals can recognise, understand and manage their emotions and that of others, enabling them to interact with their colleagues well (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). According to Lopes et al (2005), EQ was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity and pro-social inclinations. The connection between EQ and positive peer nomination, as well as identification of reciprocal friendships, was also established was also established by this study. From this, it can be said that there is a strong case for a linkage between EQ and interpersonal skills and relationship management.

In addition, Slaski and Cartwright (2002) also argued that higher EQ enable individuals to easily adjust to stress, because of their better coping mechanisms (Bar-On, Brown, Kirkcaldy, & Thome, 2000). EQ training was also found to contribute in more positive perceptions of work life quality and reduced distress, aside from increasing morale (Slaski & Cartwright, 2003). This is very important as the demands of work may really exact a toll on employees. Getting people with greater resilience and tolerance to such pressures and demands, as well as having a clear perspective on what is expected of them, is definitely a key strategy in cornering the right human assets for the organisation. Finally, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004), in a meta-analysis study, revealed a positive association between EQ and performance in the workplace, as well as in the school. In terms of team performance, high EQ teams were found to perform at a high level even without training, while teams with low EQ have to undergo specific trainings to attain the same performance level of their high EQ counterparts (Jordan & Troth, 2002). Such an edge can be attributed to the emotional element present in team decision making putting teams with high EQ in a clear advantage (Jordan & Troth, 2004). In another study, it was stated that EQ constitutes a crucial element in customer interaction, especially among service-oriented employees, thus EQ also has bearing on enhancing customer satisfaction experience (Rozell, Pettijohn, & Parker, 2002). Given this, there is no question that the attention EQ is getting from organisations scholars is valid and very much warranted.

Studies also show that people with higher EQ have good conflict resolution competencies. This can partly stem from the assertion that all conflicts are emotional in nature since they involve views of threats or risks to individual or organisational objectives (Jordan & Troth, 2004). Weisinger (1998) pointed out that conflict management and improving relations within organisations require adept emotional management strengths. This makes it imperative for companies to train their managers on EQ so that they will be more equipped in handling tensions or differences among their employees in the workplace. Higher EQ confers on employees a greater capacity to deal with pesky superiors at work through better conflict resolution capabilities (Lubit, 2004). This makes it sensible to develop the EQ not only of managers, but also of employees so that they can better deal with differences they may have with their bosses and so that such conflicts may not stand in the way of them fulfilling their designated duties and responsibilities. When faced by conflict, people with greater EQ are more inclined to adopt collaborative solutions and select not to avoid the issue as collaboration attests to their capacity to appreciate and control their emotions (Jordan & Troth, 2002). In his EQ model, Goleman (2001) included conflict management as one critical competency. This underpins the connection between EQ and conflict resolution. Similarly, in terms of negotiations, people with higher EQ were also found to lay down better positive affective tone from the onset paving the way for integrative resolutions (Foo, Anger Elfenbein, Tan, & Aik, 2004).

While there is much literature on the definition and underpinnings of EQ, as well as its benefits and advantages when applied in the workplace, there are not many studies available on EQ’s impact on Cybercriminal investigation. However, the fact that most of the studies have the general office setup as context may lend credence to the applicability of these researches in Cybercriminal investigation. Besides, the investigation task is packed with demands and pressures and is also emotionally laden given its sensitivity and intricacies, the number of stakeholders involved and the importance of forensic investigation.

Crime scene investigation is a gruelling task that entails a lot of considerations. As such, investigators are exposed to a lot of pressure, intimidation, opposition in their daily lives in the office. This highlights the importance of having a tough EQ on the part of those involved in this delicate job. Competency is not enough as it is essential for investigators to work with people and enjoy the respect of others. The environments where investigators operate are full of emotions from helpful to uncooperative clients to colleagues who may send out negative or positive emotional responses. Emotions are known to affect judgment (Chung, Cohen, & Monroe, 2012). Because investigators perform a very crucial task of identifying and analysing evidence, efforts must be extended to ensure that their work is not compromised, as this would have serious legal, business and regulatory repercussions.


Psychological profiling is mostly used in solving murder cases (Reyes & Wiles, 2007). However, according to Lickiewicz (2011), psychological profiling is also applicable to Cybercrimes. He added that profiling, although not meant to specifically identity the perpetrator, can help narrow down the search area, improve the law enforcement’s future investigation, create better approach or measures in detection and provide familiarity of the perpetrator based on his modus operandi (Lickiewicz, 2011). Gierowski & Najda (2010) pointed out that being able to experience and gather knowledge about such illegal activities would help interpret and analyse the evidence collected. From this, analysis of evidence will enable the authorities in profiling the offender. The analysis of evidence and the modus operandi is an inference on the psychological mind frame, motivation and behaviour of the perpetrator (Grance, Chevalier, & Kent, 2005).

According to Rogers (2006), the offenders of cybercrimes depend on the internet’s capability to cover their identities, thus their actions highly hinge on Anonymity. However, there is no causal connection with their anonymity in the conduct of crimes, modus operandi, motivation or the traces they leave in the scene of the crime (Rogers, 2006). McQuade (2009) added that offenders have their own way of breaking in and committing cybercrime through their own techniques or using applications or software. But because cybercrimes are frequently committed in sequence, there is a high likelihood of identifying the profile of the offender (Arkin, 2001).

Erbschloe (2001) asserted that there is a need to establish profiles of offenders of cybercrimes especially those that are considered to be terrorist attacks in the internet world because these individuals are becoming a serious threat to the security and privacy in the internet. Casey (1999) distinguished the types of investigation in cybercrime cases into two scenarios. One scenario is where the identity of the offender is unknown. The second scenario is where both the crime and offender is identifiable such as the case of child pornography, where the mere possession of such files is considered a crime (Casey, 1999).

According to Rogers (2001), the creation of a profile must first have data analysis in order to synthesize the possible persons to be identified as main suspects. Schell and Martin (2006) posited that the person investigating must be able to define the scale of ability of the offender, his skills and his motive in doing such crime. It is important that in making a profile, it must contain data indicating the possible sites where the offender can be found such as discussion groups, social media or Internet Relay Chat channels. In addition to this, there must be a careful analysis of the victim’s behaviour displayed in the internet and correlate his actions to his attack on the victim. One should also thoroughly analyse a victim’s actions on the Internet and find the reason for the attack on the victim. This way, a more detailed and specific profile is made in order that the offender’s future offense can be predicted and a trap can be set up (Schell & Martin, 2006). Pleskonjić et al (2006) also added that in building up a profile, it would be of immense value to estimate the age of the offender because it will be able to assert his motives, cultural behaviour and goals. Cultural behaviour is a vital element that can be influencing his/ her behaviour and with that, through psycholinguistic methods, his/ her future attacks can be predicted.

Casey (1999) emphasized the importance of profiling the offender and identifying his/ her behaviour and motivations. Doing so could give possible signs and clues of the place where the offender might be. Shaw (2006) suggested that in doing such profiling, there must be a group of experts specializing in security, laws and information technology. Shaw (2006) did not state the need for the participation of psychologists but he stressed that law enforcement agencies must not be involved in the profiling for such profile to be useful.


Despite all the developments in Forensic Psychology, it is still a fairly new area of psychology. The application of psychology in criminal proceedings involves various risks. Forensic Psychologists are therefore required to consider effective tools in identifying known and hidden behavioural characteristics. This has led to the move towards various Projective Psychological Tests described in this paper. Forensic and legal psychology is incomplete without delving into the unknown space of unconscious behaviour.

While forensic departments in certain countries have started using Projective Psychological Tests, there is an inherent risk of subjective interpretations. This is one reason why it has not gained worldwide acceptance. With so little of the unknown human drivers for action known, it is argued that additional information revealed through Projective Tests could prove valuable in certain cases. Forensic Psychology could, therefore, embrace Projective Tests as part of behavioural assessment.

The status of forensic psychology can be increased by quality research and realizing that there are areas in which the contribution of forensic psychologists is questionable (Louw, 2001). There is a huge gap in terms of competence building and knowledge transfer related to the application of Projective Testing in different scenarios. Perhaps relevant authorities could consider training programs and sharing lessons learnt from various investigations.


  1. AllPsych. (2018). The Basis for Projective Techniques. Retrieved 2018 from https://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/projective/
  2. Arkin, O. (2001). Tracing hackers: A concept for tracing and profiling malicious computer attackers. Computer Fraud & Security , 8-11.
  3. Baer, D., Wolf, M., & Risley, R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 91-97.
  4. Bar-On, R., Brown, J. M., Kirkcaldy, B. D., & Thome, E. P. (2000). Emotional expression and implications for occupational stress; an application of the emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i). Personality and Individual Differences , 28, 1107-18.
  5. Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2017). About Behavioral Analysis. Retrieved February 6, 2017 from Behavior Analyst Certification Board: http://bacb.com/about-behavior-analysis/
  6. Bornstein, R. F. (2007). Might the Rorschach Be a Projective Test After All? Social Projection of an Undesired Trait Alters Rorschach Oral Dependency Scores. Journal of Personality Assessment , 88 (3), 354-367.
  7. Cariola, L. A. (2014). Assessing the alternate-form reliability of interview-based and web-based Rorschach responses measuring body boundary imagery and regressive imagery. Rorschachiana , 35, 42-65.
  8. Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology , 18, 788-813.
  9. Casey, E. (1999). Cyberpatterns: Criminal Behaviour on the Internet. In B. Turvey, Criminal Profiling. An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. San Diego: Academic Press.
  10. Cherniss, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness. In C. Cherniss, & D. Goleman, The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace (pp. 27–44). San Fransisco: Jossey Bass.
  11. Chung, J., Cohen, J., & Monroe, G. S. (2012). The Influence of Ethical Conflict and Emotion on Auditors’ Inventory Judgments. Retrieved 2016 from http://ancaar.fec.anu.edu.au/news/documents/ChungCohenMonroe.pdf
  12. Costanzo, M. A. (2013). Using forensic psychology to teach basic psychological processes: eyewitness memory and lie detection. Teaching of Psychology , 40 (2).
  13. Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information warfare. How to survive cyberattacks. New York: McGraw Hill.
  14. Foo, M. D., Anger Elfenbein, H., Tan, H. H., & Aik, V. C. (2004). Emotional intelligence and negotiation: the tension between creating and claiming value. International Journal of Conflict Management , 15, 411–436.
  15. Gierowski, J. K., & Najda, M. (2010). Podstawowa problematyka psychologiczna w procesie karnym. In J. K. Gierowski, & T. Jaśkiewicz-Obydzińska, Psychologia w postępowaniu karnym. Warszawa: Lexis Nexis.
  16. Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review , 76, 93-102.
  17. Grance, T., Chevalier, S., & Kent, K. (2005). Guide to computer and network data analysis: applying forensic techniques to incident response. Gaithersburg: computer Security Division.
  18. Harms, P. D., & Crede, M. (2010). Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies , 17 (1), 5–17.
  19. Hatano, Y., Yamada, M., Nakagawa, K., Nanri, H., Kawase, M., & Kenji, F. (2014). Using drawing tests to explore the multidimensional psychological aspects of children with cancer. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology , 44 (10), 1009–1012.
  20. Ioannou, m., Canter, D., Youngs, D., & Synnott, J. (2015). Offenders’ crime narratives across different types of crimes. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice , 15 (5), 383-400.
  21. Jordan, P. J., & Troth, A. C. (2002). Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution: Implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources , 4, 62-79.
  22. Jordan, P. J., & Troth, A. C. (2004). Managing Emotions During Team Problem Solving: EI and Conflict Resolution. Human Performance , 17, 195-218.
  23. Jordan, P. J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Ascough, K. (2007). Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Behavior and Industrial-Organizational Psychology. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts, The science of emotional intelligence (pp. 356-375). New York: Oxford University Press.
  24. Lickiewicz, J. (2011). Cybercrim Psychology – Proposal of an Offender Psychological Profile. Problems of Forensic Sciences , 239-252.
  25. Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., Cote, S., & Beers, M. (2005). Emotion regulation abilities and the quality of social interaction. Emotion , 5 (1), 113-118.
  26. Louw, D. (2001). Forensic Psychology. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences , 5745-5750.
  27. Lubit, R. H. (2004). Coping with toxic managers, subordinates, and other impossible people. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Prentice Hall.
  28. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review , 50, 370–396.
  29. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications for Educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.
  30. McQuade, S. C. (2009). Encyclopedia of Cybercrime. London: Greenwood Press.
  31. Miller, J. (2015). Dredging and projecting the depths of personality: The Thematic Apperception Test and the narratives of the unconscious. Of Means and Ends: Mind and Brain Science in the Twentieth Century , 28 (1), 9-30.
  32. Neal, T. M. (2016). Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them? Retrieved 2018 from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154434
  33. Patel, A. P. (2013). Person of Issue: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). The International Journal of Indian Psychology , 1 (1).
  34. Pleskonjić, D., Milutinović, V., & Maček, N. (2006). Psychological profile of network intruder. Conference IPSI, (pp. 23-26). Amalfi, Italy.
  35. Reyes, A., & Wiles, J. (2007). Best damn cybercrime and digital forensic book. Burlington: Syngress Publishing.
  36. Rogers, M. (2001). A social learning theory and moral disengagement analysis of criminal computer behaviour: an exploratory study. Manitoba: University of Manitoba.
  37. Rogers, M. (2006). The development of a meaningful hacker taxonomy: A two dimensional approach. Digital Investigations , 97–102.
  38. Rozell, E. J., Pettijohn, C. E., & Parker, R. S. (2002). An empirical evaluation of emotional intelligence: The impact on management development. The Journal of Management Development , 21, 272-289.
  39. Schell, B., & Martin, C. (2006). Webster’s New World Hacker Dictionary, . Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc.
  40. Serrat, O. (2009, June). Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved 2016 from Asian Development Bank Knowledge Solutions: http://www.researchnest.com/all_reports/13089062351understanding-developing-emotional-intelligence.pdf
  41. Shaw, E. (2006). The role of behavioral research and profiling in malicious cyber insider investigation. Digital Investigation , 20-31.
  42. Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2003). Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health , 19, 233-239.
  43. Sloane, H. (1992). What is Behaviour Analysis? From Behavior Science of the Rockies: http://www.bsotr.com/pdf/What%20Is%20Behavior%20Analysis.pdf
  44. Trygg, L., Dåderman, A. M., Wiklund, N., Meurling, A. W., Lindgren, M., Lidberg, L., et al. (2001). Using projective tests in forensic psychiatry may lead to wrong conclusions. Only empirically tested tests should be used. Lakartidningen , 98 (26-27), 3118-23.
  45. Van Rooy, D., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior , 65, 71-95.
  46. Weisinger, H. (1998). Emotional Intelligence at Work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  47. Zaffaroni, E. R., & Oliveir, E. (2013). Criminology and Criminal Policy Movements. UK: University Press of America.





Red teams are external units that evaluate the effectiveness of a security program. It is achieved by simulating the behavior and methods of possible attackers in the most convincing manner. Blue teams are integrated security groups that protect the organization from real attackers and the Red Teams. Since many security teams are not constantly attacked, most Blue Teams should be separated from established standard security groups (Miessler, 2016).

Red Team and Blue Team exercises were named after similar military experiences. The concept is that a group of security experts (the Red Team) is attacking an object, and the other group (the Blue Team) is protecting them. Initially, the exercises were ran by the army for military training. They have also been utilized to assess the physical security of high value assets, such as nuclear facilities.

According to Hargreaves and Chamberlain (2018), Red Teams have been hired to replicate the behavior and methods of the attackers in the most realistic possible way. For instance, this group may attempt to enter a commercial building by acting as a distribution controller in order to configure the device to facilitate public access. On the other hand, the Blue Team is responsible for defending against these attacks, and functions as the internal security team. The Red Team is generally security goal oriented and tries to secretly verify the company’s own defense. The team involves well-trained and technically competent security experts, whose goal is to ascertain and take advantage of security vulnerabilities in the system (CybeRisk, 2018).

Miessler (2016) argues that, excluding complex threats in the real world, the exercise will be very realistic. Red Team is not limited to IT tools and advanced technology to penetrate systems and buildings. It can include writing a personal malware and developing new methods, just as spiteful hackers do. Everything is allowed including social engineering and psychological manipulation to achieve their goals. If they need to mask their entry by posing as the courier to connect the USB device to a computer, so be it. The Blue Team is usually the company’s Director of Security at the Security Operation Center (SOC). SOC is made up of very qualified analysts who protect and improve the security of the organization 24×7.

Drinkwater and Zurkus (2017) point out that the Blue Team must determine, defend and weaken the Red Team. The attack simulation is intended to improve their capabilities by organizing them for dangerous attacks in the real world. Blue Team will identify and defuse the most demanding attacks and carefully monitor contemporary and evolving threats to the active protection of the company.


Digital Forensics operates as part of the Blue Team, since it works as part of the SOC or the Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT). Generally, not everything is included, but it has the background of the Security Operations Center. Digital Forensics requires tools to check deleted files in hard disks, memory, browser caches and Windows registry (Paganini, 2016).

There are two sides to the argument; one says outsource all you can for whatever resources and competences needed. The other says do not outsource critical functions which compromise your most valuable assets.


Evans (2016) points out that computer forensic reviews are generally performed inadequately in many medium and large institutions. Even though the current trend includes computer forensics as an integral discipline of an extensive information security program, there are several institutions with limited capability for computer forensics.

Devlin (2018) argues that if the institution has conflicting legal requirements or cannot provide a permanent source of support for this resource, it is reasonable to transfer it to a third party. Outsourcing solutions must be based on the required IT skills and, of course, on cost analysis. The organization must also determine the scope and possibility of the possible outsourcing contract, as well as the internal resources needed to attain the required capacity level.

Devlin (2018) indicates that there are four main reasons for this inconvenience: computer forensic examinations and their assistance activities are very costly, complex and technically complex with possible legal consequences; new tools and methods with constant updates are usually required to adapt to new technologies and threat models; it may be hard to validate the establishment and maintenance of a legal laboratory that will continue the process of collecting all the notches and is based on the burden of proof; and the protection of this capacity requires the development and formation of a large number of people.

The lack of specialists, such as digital forensic investigators, is a real problem. The analysis of any digital data is annoying and time-consuming, even with the aid of a specialized software. Digital forensics requires the analysis of multiple digital devices and the numbers can run into tens and hundreds, but there are not sufficient investigators to perform the necessary analysis. Digital forensic experts also have to deal with situations where they are limited in the number of hours that can be spent watching each hard drive. For each machine, it may take several days for proper legal work, requiring compliance to various standards and regulations, when dealing with a continuous flow of data entering the lab. Thus, their research work suffers (CYFOR, 2018).


There would be a number of instances that an organization would be compelled to seek the services of forensic experts in-house (Digital Discovery, 2011). While there are advantages of seeking the services of forensic experts in-house, there maybe valid reasons that could limit federal institutions and government organizations from seeking these services. These situations include circumstances such as when the organizations are involved in legal law suits, where the organizations deals with classified materials, and even circumstances where the organizations experience frequent intrusions (Obbayi, 2018). Chain of custody can be compromised where the transfer of digital evidence is not documented, something that is more likely when digital forensics is outsourced. According to Devlin (2018), the one key advantage of seeking forensic experts in-house is the fact that it will go a long way in saving money. But saving cost is not a good enough reason to outsource your most critical functions.

Federal and government bodies have massive amounts of sensitive data that needs to be kept secret at any cost (Comtact, 2017). Devlin (2018) point out that choosing an in-house cyber security expert to secure critical data is a natural option. Many times it is difficult to ensure that the outsourced party is really as good as they claim to be. Furthermore, forensic experts in-house could play a continuance role in assisting to detect and investigate cases of fraud, asset misappropriation, abusing and misusing the system, and other forms of non-compliance.


The Red Team is under the organization’s radar, while it targets its objectives without any limitation of time or resource. The Blue Team, on the other hand, needs to operate within organizational boundaries while being ever ready to defend against any attack. While they may be saving the organization against numerous attacks, one incident of security breach is enough to tarnish their image.

In the world cup, the game is not about how many balls the goalkeeper has defended, and no-one will remember this; it is about how many balls the goalkeeper missed, and this is what everyone will remember.

On another note, people will always remember the doctor whose negligence cost someone’s life, but conveniently forget the thousand lives the doctor saved in his or her lifetime. This just highlights the tremendous pressure the Blue Team works under, every day of the year and especially the role that forensic experts in-house could play.

The courts place immense value to the integrity of digital evidence. Therefore, one cannot understate the importance of documenting the collection, examination, storage and transfer of digital evidence by competent people. Organizations need to assess the risk of outsourcing digital forensics aligned with these requirements.

The oft-quoted reason for outsourcing digital forensics is the lack of internal expertise, or to simply save money. Imagine if the hospital you visit does not have its own doctors, and shares all your medical information with an external consultant who prescribes your treatment. Would you go to such a hospital to save a few hundred dollars?


  1. Comtact. (2017). Pros and cons of outsourcing your Cyber Security – In-house, MSSP, or Virtual SOC? Retrieved July 13, 2018, from http://www.comtact.co.uk/blog/pros-and-cons-of-outsourcing-your-cyber-security-in-house-mssp-or-virtual-soc

  2. CybeRisk. (2018). The Red, Blue and Purple team and what’s between them. Retrieved from: . Retrieved July 13, 2018, from https://www.cyberisk.biz/red-blue-purple-team/

  3. CYFOR. (2018). Police should be outsourcing to digital evidence specialists. Retrieved July 12, 2018, from https://cyfor.co.uk/police-should-be-outsourcing-to-digital-evidence-specialists/

  4. Devlin, H. (2018). Police outsource digital forensic work to unaccredited labs. Retrieved July 15, 2018, from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/feb/12/police-outsource-digital-forensic-work-to-unaccredited-labs

  5. Digital Discovery. (2011). Why Out-Source Computer Forensics? Retrieved July 13, 2018, from http://www.digitaldiscoveryesi.com/Blog/Why%20Out-Source%20Computer%20Forensics?/

  6. Drinkwater, D., & Zurkus, K. (2017). (2017). Red team versus blue team: How to run an effective simulation. Retrieved July 13, 2018, from https://www.csoonline.com/article/2122440/disaster-recovery/emergency-preparedness-red-team-versus-blue-team-how-to-run-an-effective-simulation.html

  7. Evans, B. (2016, January 29). Should you outsource computer forensic? Retrieved July 14, 2018, from https://www.healthdatamanagement.com/opinion/should-you-outsource-your-computer-forensic-investigations

  8. Hargreaves, A., & Chamberlain, J. (2018). The roles of Red, Blue and Purple teams. Retrieved July 12, 2018, from https://www.itlab.com/blog/understanding-the-roles-of-red-blue-and-purple-security-teams

  9. Miessler, D. (2016). The Difference between Red, Blue, and Purple Teams. Retrieved from:. Retrieved July 14, 2018, from https://danielmiessler.com/study/red-blue-purple-teams/

  10. Obbayi, L. (2018). Computer Forensics: Chain of Custody. Retrieved July 13, 2018, from InfoSec Institute: https://resources.infosecinstitute.com/category/computerforensics/introduction/areas-of-study/legal-and-ethical-principles/chain-of-custody-in-computer-forensics/

  11. Paganini, P. (2016). Cyber security: Red team, Blue team and Purple team. Retrieved July 13, 2018, from https://securityaffairs.co/wordpress/49624/hacking/cyber-red-team-blue-team.html

  12. Stackpole, B. (2016). Why (and when) outsourcing security makes sense. Retrieved July 13, 2018, from https://www.cio.com/article/3120650/security/why-and-when-outsourcing-security-makes-sense.html






Contamination by pathogenic microorganisms is a major public health risk. People are working in dirty environments or engaging in work where there is body contact with pathogens which are a health hazard (Nasser & Alwakeel, 2012). In this context, manual handling of currency notes poses a special risk to public health, especially in places such as exchange houses, banks and casinos. Infectious diseases can easily spread through body contact with money.

Microbial contamination of money may be from different sources, such as accounting machines, work environment, storage, common usage, processing and printing (Alemu, 2014). Daily transactions that move currency from one point to another also pass pathogens. Alemu (2014) reports that the sources of contamination may be due to poor money processing and handling. There is a possibility that the notes might serve as a means of transmitting potentially pathogenic microorganisms in such environments. Money is exchanged while buying goods and services in the majority of the areas across the world. It is utilized in all types of trade, from ordering milk in a local store to trading in drugs and sexual services; each providing a fertile ground for pathogens to breed.


Green, Selman, and Radke (2006) point out that the parasites in notes that have been identified as contaminating substances are mainly from faecal matter. If the hands are not properly washed after visiting the toilet, the tendency is that the contamination develops parasitic eggs and even diseases. Green, Selman, and Radke (2006) pointed out that the cause of infection could be from mismanagement of currency, such as fumigation during a ceremony when the money can be stepped over if it falls down. People dealing with notes pass some of their body odour on to the currency note, inadvertently transmitting bacteria to the next person. Furthermore, microfluidic contamination is also drawn from dust, water, soil and the ones handling the objects, which are often used to count the notes.

Currency can cause the transfer of bacteria and parasites from one person to another, for example by using wet fingers, saliva or contaminated water and eventually going back to the bank. The appearance of the pathogenic microorganisms creates a potential risk to consumer health. It is recommended that people should follow hygiene practices before handling food and water after contacting notes and counting machines. Abid (2012) argues that microorganisms are everywhere, so they have the ability to live on items like notes and counting machines. In general, even the contact of currency notes with the atmosphere can lead to environmental contamination. Money that carry pathogenic microorganisms is often a forgotten reservoir of intestinal diseases. In most developed countries, it is held that the concurrent handling of food and currency leads to higher chances of health damage (Abid, 2012).

According to Nasser and Alwakeel (2012), many people have no wallets to keep their money in and squeezed notes are distributed, particularly among women merchants, motorcyclists, drivers, meat producers, restaurant waiters and owners, and others. Men and women squeeze their money in socks, while women put it under the rug or carpet. Men and women in markets stuff notes in dirty pockets. Such currency handling can transfer microorganisms to the notes. In addition, the storage of money in polyethylene, cotton, and pelt bags in a damp and dim environment also contributes to the development of microorganisms.

According to Abid (2012), the presence of a heavy load of microorganisms may represent a potential risk to the health of the consumers. People are expected to rely on a hygienic application before taking food and drinks after interacting with money and counting apparatuses. Microorganisms are present everywhere, so they can contaminate money counting machines.

Neel (2012) point out that currency is probably the most handled object in the world every day by people. Money moves between clean hands and very dirty hands, and vice versa. The lower notes are the most handled, since they are exchanged several times. In addition, cross-contamination of the faecal waste, injuries, nasal discharge, sneezing and cough are possible sources of transferring the microorganism to the notes.


Neel (2012) indicates that there are various ways of controlling the hazardous effects of microorganisms from money. Compressed air must not be used to clean counting machines and workplaces, since it can generate air pollutants. For cleaning it is necessary to use a vacuum cleaner with a high-quality particle filter. One can also use a damp cloth to clean the structures. One should not dry sweep the place. A qualified ventilation company must carry out the complete control of the heating, aeration and air conditioning, in support of the counting rooms, workplaces and rest areas. Necessary changes must be made to ensure adequate ventilation. The goal of the project should be to offer sufficient space with air conditioning and better ventilation for each area.

Green, Selman, and Radke (2006) suggest that people should improve cleanliness in places where money counting takes place. It is necessary to increase the cleaning frequency and all the ventilation openings, instruments, tables and other parts should be cleaned regularly with a damp cloth. Workers must wash their hands thoroughly before smoking, eating, drinking and after finishing the shifts as part of their personal hygiene. The workers should use gloves and masks on their faces to protect themselves from the microorganisms found on the currencies.

It is not just the germs that are carried in notes, people that count money within safes or secured closed environments are also exposed to fine particulate matter from the printing ink. Ordinary dust masks and hand gloves cannot offer adequate protection against airborne pathogens and fine ink that are very small in size.

There are three levels of filter efficiencies of masks – 95% (N95), 99% (N99), and 99.97% (N100 or HEPA filter) tested against aerosol (fine mist) droplets 0.3 microns in diameter. N95 type respirators are the respirators recommended for use by health care workers in contact with patients with infections (CCOHS, 2018). There are several resources freely available to better understand respiratory protection (OSHA, 2012; OSHA, 2009)

Yue et al. (2013) argue that Cordyceps is a well-known traditional medicinal mushrooms in China. Cordyceps attacks the larvae of some insect species and develops into sclerotium, from which it grows further. For this reason, Cordyceps can be useful to the people who use money-counting machines because Cordyceps can help killing microorganisms that are capable of causing various diseases to the money handlers, such as cancer.


Various sources have shown that currencies, money-counting machines and currency counting rooms of banks are contaminated with different types of microorganisms. The presence of various microorganisms in money counting rooms and counting machines may pose a potential risk to consumer health. The risk is not limited to bacteria; printing ink is also a source of respiratory problems for those engaged in money counting. For this reason, it is advisable to process money in a safe way so that it is not contaminated by dirt and pathogens.

Organizations that count a lot of money – exchange houses, banks, casinos for example, must manage currency with extreme care by ensuring removal of dirty money from circulation (Vriesekoop, et al., 2010). It is advisable to regularly disinfect money received in banks with ultraviolet light and formalin vapour. Counting coins and notes has been linked to incidences of cancer and Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (Kiefer & Delaney, 2001; Kupeli, Karnak, Sak, & Kayacan, 2010). This validates the importance of having respiratory masks certified to a minimum of N95.

Based on the results of various studies, it is fair to say that money handling causes transmission of various microorganisms that cause diseases to people and some of these diseases can cause death. Thus, money counting today can be the reason for people to die tomorrow.


1.Abid, H. S. (2012). Bacterial Contamination of Iraqi Paper Currency Notes in Circulation & Resistance of Pathogenic Bacteria to Antibiotics. Iraqi Journal of Science Iraqi Journal of Science , 53 (1), 245-8.

2.Alemu, A. (2014). Microbial contamination of currency notes and coins in circulation: a potential public health hazard. Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2 (3), 46-53.

3.CCOHS. (2018, July 20). Respiratory Protection Against Airborne Infectious Agents for Health Care Workers. Retrieved July 21, 2018 from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety: https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/prevention/respiratory_protection.html

4.Green, L., Selman, C., & Radke, V. (2006). Food Worker Hand Washing Practices: An Observational Study. Journal of Food Protection , 69 (10), 2417-2426.

5.Kiefer, M., & Delaney, L. (2001, Jan 09). Evaluation of exposure to contaminants during coin and paper counting activities. Retrieved July 21, 2018 from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/2001-0109-2835.pdf

6.Kupeli, E., Karnak, D., Sak, S. D., & Kayacan, O. (2010). Hazards of the ‘hard cash’: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Can Respir Journal , 17 (5), 102-105.

7.Nasser, L. A., & Alwakeel, S. (2012). Bacterial and fungal contamination of Saudi Arabian paper currency and cell phones. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal , 11 (3), 72.

8.Neel, R. (2012). Multidrug Resistance of Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in Paper Currency Notes From Meat Sellers in Tanga, Tanzania. Int J LifeSc Bt & Pharm Res. , 1 (4), 9-13.

9.OSHA. (2012). Respiratory Protection. Retrieved July 21, 2018 from Occupational Safety and Health Administration: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/respiratoryprotection/training_videos.html#video

10.OSHA. (2009, Dec 16). The Difference Between Respirators and Surgical Masks. Retrieved July 21, 2018 from Occupational Safety and Health Administration: The Difference Between Respirators and Surgical Masks

11.Vriesekoop, F., Russell, C., Alvarez-Mayorga, B., Aidoo, K., Yuan, Q., Scannell, A., et al. (2010). Dirty money: an investigation into the hygiene status of some of the world’s currencies as obtained from food outlets. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease , 7 (12), 1497-502.

12.Yue, K., Ye, M., Zhou, Z., Sun, W., & Lin, X. (2013). The genus Cordyceps: a chemical and pharmacological review. J Pharm Pharmacol , 65 (4), 474-93.





Among all useful information, professors also teach a lot of information, which is not necessary for the life of future adults. There are also many teachers who do not know what to teach for a better return on investment. First of all, many studies have become masters of a significant amount of knowledge, although Young (2014) does not consider it as what matters in the life of a student. The information in the textbook may not be what the students need or wish. As an alternative, most people will say that education must prepare the students for life, but most of the information delivered in schools does not work in this regard. According to Herold and Waring (2017), teachers usually go through standard education methods and deliverables of education materials, with massive data to cross-over, which becomes normality and a default concept of education. However a large knowledge base is not useful if it is not used. Information is meant to be used directly or indirectly by helping the individual to make connections, and it should not be taught for the single purpose of accumulating knowledge. Nevertheless, people often focus on short-term success, which is passing well in a test and doing well in a spelling test. Unluckily, all the test data, the information students have reviewed, should be mastered or remembered, and would be useless if it is not used.

This article covers the following skills that I consider useful when teaching students.


Stress as a simple word can be bent and seems trivial. Stress is the body’s response to exploitation, threats or changes that a person experiences. Usually, this is due to busy schedules and a big volume of work. It is essential to keep in mind that stress is not a single concept. This emphasizes the fact that a person cannot distort the next person due to the concept of stress. Therefore, it is important for the students to be taught stress management in order for them to understand the causes and consequences of stress, in addition to identifying stressors and coping with stress. At the same time, numerous circumstances, situations, and costs can be charged. These situations and stressful pressures are called stressors. Stress factors can be generated by internal and external factors (Renzi, Oliveri, & Pravettoni, 2015).

Jenny et al. (2014) argues that when the body faces stress factors, its reaction is to enter a protection mood by remaining focused, energetic and alert, as going through combat and kicks reflection. Studies have revealed that a sufficient amount of controlled stress can strengthen brain function, strengthen the immune system, and better prepare the individual for any other stressful situations that can positively affect the emotional health of a person’s work and family life.

Once the students learn about stress management, they will be able to discover themselves having many of the stress symptoms, be aware of the stress presence in their lives, and once this happens, it would be the right time for them to regain control (Jenny et al., 2014). The first step in overcoming stress is identifying the warning signs, recognizing the stressors in their life and mastering stress management, would be by changing the stressful situation and influence the response.


People with anxiety disorders are in a state of anxiety in most of their time. Anxiety disorders do not comprise only nervousness and anxiety. They can result in a terrible fear of things which the other individuals do not think about. Many individuals with anxiety disorder appreciate that their opinions are illogical, but they cannot end them (Batelaan, Van Balkom, & Stein, 2012).

According to Batelaan, Van Balkom, & Stein (2012), the management of anxiety disorders and depression should be handled and controlled with the help of a therapist. It is very important that individuals with anxiety and depression get a good evaluation in order to eliminate bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a state wherein emotions can move between very low and very high levels of obsession and despair and is being treated very differently from the anxiety disorder with depression.

We get sick when we subject ourselves to unhealthy thoughts (the proverbial rotten tomatoes). Mental health is where problems start. Mental health can be improved by smiling, mindful meditation of how thoughts play in our mind and breathing deeply (Ea, 2018). It would be valuable for students to learn when and how to accept whatever is between their hands and overcome depression, anxiety and panic attacks.


Maier, Takano, and Sapir-Pichhadze (2017) point out that rejection, lack of appreciation, failure and disappointment are normal elements and feelings of everyday life, regardless of the success of a person. All humans are looking for acceptance, alignment, approval from friends, families, colleagues, managers and society. However, there is the risk and even the certainty of rejection and disagreement. Almost everyone, no matter how self-confident they are, they worry when they get rejected in one of these situations. However, some individuals seem overwhelmed.

This is why students have to learn what it takes to react repeatedly to rejections and lack of appreciation. They should learn that there is something to be done about it and will be able to find out in advance what possibilities concrete efforts will bring. If the chances are high, there is no reason not to try. It is also an excuse not to be dispirited by rejection (Maier, Takano, & Sapir-Pichhadze, 2017). Lastly, they will remember that rejection is not essentially, perhaps not generally, a reflection of who one is, what he or she wrote or how they think, and nothing will stop here, by learning perusing the individual’s dream(s).


All people feel sad sometimes. Sadness is a normal emotion which can make life more exciting. Nearly at all times sadness is accompanied by loss. People are frequently sad when they say farewell to a loved one. The suffering is even deeper when an intimate relationship ends or when a dear friend is dead. However, sadness helps people to enjoy happiness. When one’s mood finally changes from sadness to joy, such changes will be more enjoyably and appreciated (Tay & Kuykendall, 2016).

Learning about sadness and happiness management will enable students to experience normal sadness in a healthy way which will let this feeling enrich their lives. Tay and Kuykendall (2016) indicate that the refusal of these feelings can cause them to move to the underworld, where they can cause more harm over time. They will understand the importance of crying when they feel like, which might be a good way of discharging emotions, since we are living humans experiencing diverse feelings. They will realize that they feel relieved after stop crying. They will learn to do activities that will help manage both emotions through: writing a journal, listening to music, spending time with family and friends, or painting in order to show the emotions of sadness. They will think impartially to feelings and enjoy the waves of experience. Sadness may come from a change one did not anticipate, or it might signal that one will have to make a change in his or her life. Emotions change and they come and go. Thus, the students will be able to know when sadness changes to depression, ask for help if this happens and don’t give up.


If people have a credit card, they can make purchases without worrying if they have enough cash in their pocket or in a debit account to pay the bill. It makes the budget and liquidity management more essential and equally essential. Good management of personal finances is not only essential to achieving long-term objectives, but also vital in the short term. It is a set of skills that can protect people from spending irresponsibly a large amount of money (Suthinee, Robert, & Nina, 2016).

There is never a shortage of seductive things to purchase. Setting a budget for the amount of fun one can pay for a month allows them to control costs. Students can learn the importance of responsible spending, which is extremely important, as responsibilities such as: student loans, vehicle loans, revolving loans (credit cards) and home mortgage might add up and become the students’ shadow for the rest of their life. Suthinee, Robert, & Nina (2016) indicate that it is not possible to defer these payments or credit card accounts without additional fines or interest. With the right planning and budget, the students can avoid uncontrolled debts in future.


Farrell (2017) says that the management of time is, first of all, the ability to organize and plan the time dedicated to daily activities. The outcome of good time management is greater efficiency and productivity. It is a fundamental feature of project management and includes expertise like planning, setting goals and setting priorities to improve productivity with respective to the running cost.

Learning this skill will enable students to understand that the lack of effective time management may have a negative effect on a long-term project and on their own life. Time is among the three triple conditions of any project and any nonconformity from the program influences the cost and possibility of the project (Farrell, 2017). In general, time is money. Inefficient management of time can also lead to increased stress and frustration of the planning director and team members. One of the key factors in time management is learning not to postpone today’s activities untill tomorrow. Furthermore, remembering the reasons for starting such activities would be the second key factor to keep you going and motivated. Just be aware that, within the present cyber era, there are a lot of time thieves, starting and not limited to Social Media (eg.: Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Youtube, etc.), and Online Entertainment (online movies, long lasty serial movies, online games, etc.).


Anger is part of daily life. Unconscious or aware, hate, violence, antagonism and hostility are present in our daily lives. Several psychological concepts of human development underline the universality of the child’s tussle with the basic imaginations of guilt, aggressiveness, and repatriation. It seems that these fantasies come from the basic feelings of frustration and anger. A number of theories approve that people get angry at the beginning of their lives (Candelaria, Fedewa, & Ahn, 2012).

The skill will make the students understand that the absence of anger management can be catastrophic, as it can have an emotional effect on a person’s mental health and interfere with individual and professional affairs. Learning how to manage anger is a necessity for those who cannot control their anger and the wrath in their lives. The management of anger can be a common solution for a person’s health. According to Dr. Christian, learning “how to let go” is vital in anger management. This can be done by actively replacing old anger thoughts with new active ones, with less self-focus, thinking of helping others and being thankful for all the beautiful things we have (Conte, 2018).


The current school experience is not suitable for students and it is necessary to present proposals on more relevant topics related to life. Instead of developing advanced skills, such as differential calculus in the first twelve years of study, which will almost never be used in life, students can become a sort of “expert amateur” in statistics (Young, 2014). Indeed, expert amateurism has worked very well for most of the people’s lives, like nurturing children, paying taxes, art, calculating insurance rates or taking care of the body’s health. Furthermore, teachers should focus on teaching other skills like how to manage stress, fighting with depression, anxiety, eliminate panic and lack of recognition, managing sadness and happiness, saving money in their pocket, and managing time and anger in everyday life.

The above list is not limited only to these seven elements to be taught and considered within the present Cyber Era. It can further include and not be limited to subjects such as: Self-Healing, Meditation, Health, Nutrition, Orientation and Survival in Nature, Environmental Protection, Securing respective Online Persona, Lecturing, Public Speaking and Presentation Techniques, History of Religions, Acceptance to Others, Animals Care, Psychology, Self-Assessment, Interviewing Techniques, Profiling, Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Cultural Intelligence (CQ) and People Intelligence (PQ).


  1. Batelaan, N. M., Van Balkom, A. J., & Stein, D. J. (2012). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of panic disorder: an update. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology , 15 (3), 403–415.
  2. Candelaria, A. M., Fedewa, A. L., & Ahn, S. (2012). The effects of anger management on children’s social and emotional outcomes: A meta-analysis. School Psychology International , 33 (6), 596-614.
  3. Conte, C. (2018, April 2). Anger Management: How to let go. Retrieved 2018, from youtube.com: https://youtu.be/qxEYjvNU__w
  4. Ea, P. (2018, March 18). We need to talk about mental health. Retrieved 2018, from youtube.com: https://youtu.be/6YbWRqsnHdo
  5. Farrell, M. (2017). Time management. Journal of Library Administration , 57 (2), 215-222.
  6. Herold, F., & Waring, M. (2016). Frank, Herold & Michael, Waring (2017). Is practical subject matter knowledge still important? Examining the Siedentopian perspective on the role of content knowledge in physical education teacher education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy , 22 (3), 231-245.
  7. Jenny, G. J., Brauchli, R., Inauen, A., Füllemann, D., Fridrich, A., & Bauer, G. F. (2014). Process and outcome evaluation of an organizational-level stress management intervention in Switzerland. Health Promotion International , 30 (3), 573–585.
  8. Maier, M., Takano, T., & Sapir-Pichhadze, R. (2017). Changing paradigms in the management of rejection in kidney transplantation. Evolving From Protocol-Based Care to the Era of P4 Medicine. Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease .
  9. Renzi, C., Oliveri, S., & Pravettoni, G. (2015). The importance of stress management in the presurgical phase. Psychosomatic Medicine , 77 (2), 209–210.
  10. Suthinee, S., Robert, L., & Nina, H. (2016). The impact of social and financial education on savings attitudes and behavior among primary school children in Uganda. Evaluation Review .
  11. Tay, L., & Kuykendall, L. (2016). Why self-reports of happiness and sadness may not necessarily contradict bipolarity: a psychometric review and proposal. Emotion Review , 9 (2), 146-154.
  12. Young, M. (2014). Curriculum theory: what it is and why it is important. Research Notebooks , 44 (151).






Hormones play a significant role in maintaining human health and a vital role of communication within the body. Out of the 600 hormones in the human body, the most notable are: Testosterone, Thyroxine, Adrenal, Estrogen, Melatonin, Human Growth Hormone, and Cortisol. These hormones are often produced by glands in the body and transported via blood to other parts of the body. They carry messages that impact the functioning of the human body. The overproduction or underproduction of any of these hormones may have implications to the functioning of our bodies (Ray, 2015). This paper discusses these implications with a focus on Testosterone, Estrogen, Melatonin, Human Growth Hormone, and Cortisol. The paper also looks at the effect of vitamins imbalance, such as Vitamins A, B, C, D, E, K2, and mineral imbalance, such as: Manganese, Magnesium, Calcium, Selenium, Zinc, Boron and Omega-3. There is a discussion on Probiotics and Natural Foods and Spices such as Black Seed Oil, Garlic, Ginger, Lemon, Turmeric, Cinnamon, Red Cayenne Powder, Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) and Honey.


Testosterone is responsible for regulating fertility, fat distribution, muscle mass, and red blood cell production. The optimum testosterone level for men is about 270 to 1070 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL). Having above the normal level of testosterone may impact the individual’s physical and mental abilities, causing acne, greater assertiveness and reduced social anxiety, greater work capacity and energy improvements, motivation and greater ambition, shorter refractory period and heightened libido/ sex drive and response times, concentration and greater ability to work and complete complex mental tasks, increased muscle mass and strength, higher base metabolic rate and reduction in body fat, mild euphoria and a reduction in depression. On the contrary, low levels of testosterone is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis, increased risk of low libido, increase in fat tissue, constant fatigue, depression, increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease, minor testicle shrinkage, reduced fertility, hair loss and enlarged prostate. Low testosterone levels may also result in a decline in physical energy, strength, stamina, diminished mental aggressiveness, more aches and pains in the bones and joints than normal, weight gain and a decline in erections and libido (Ray, 2015).

The Estrogen hormone is responsible for sexual development and regulating menstrual cycles in females. It affects the entire reproductive system of women. Its level in women’s body varies between different stages of menstrual cycle. High levels of Estrogen, or Estrogen dominance, occur when the body’s levels of Estrogen and progesterone are not in balance. Excessive level of Estrogen has various implications: bloating, fibrocystic lumps, tenderness and swelling in breasts, decreased sex drive, increased symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, irregular menstrual periods, panic attacks and anxiety, headaches, mood swings, cold feet or hands, hair loss, weight gain, memory problems, fatigue or sleepiness and trouble sleeping.

Melatonin hormone is produced by pineal gland in tryptophan in the human brain. It plays a key role in regulating the sleep cycle. Its production is often triggered by decreased light exposure. It has an influence on immune system and it is known to regulate the production of sex hormone. It also plays a role in several female and male conditions (Whiticomb, 2011).

There are several factors which lead to a low level of Melatonin. One of the factors leading to lack of sleep is exposure to light during sleep time (PowerHealthYT, 2016). This may happen when one uses a phone until late at night before sleep. This is because the phone exposes the individual to light, which causes insomnia, accumulation of toxins inside the brain, and causes loss of memory. Insomnia works against the production of Melatonin. The blue light emitted by smartphone works against the production of Melatonin consequently altering sleep patterns (Viral Hub, 2017).

It is important for one to ensure he or she has enough Melatonin, as low levels of Melatonin have been associated with Seasonal Affective Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Low levels of Melatonin have also been linked to people suffering from Panic Disorders, Depression, various types of Cancers, Sleep Disorders, Cardiovascular Disease, risk for Coronary Disease, Fatigue, Cataracts, Parkinson’s Disease, Heart Attacks, Heart Arrhythmias, Blood Clots, Elevated Cholesterol Levels, sensitivity to Stress, unusual Menstrual Flow, Irregular Menstrual Cycle and Scoliosis (Ray, 2015; Whiticomb, 2011).

Another important hormone is Human Growth Hormone (HGH), a natural Testosterone booster produced in the pituitary glands. It plays an important role in growth and development, cell regeneration and maintaining health human tissues. Its deficiency may cause erectile dysfunction, poor cognitive function and mood, poor sleep, weaker bones, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, reduced muscular strength and poor fracture healing in adults. In children, its deficiency may predict slow hair growth and prominent forehead. Mehl (2016) suggests that one can increase HGH in the body by skipping meals, praying and fasting. According to Berg (2017) HGH helps in cell growth, fat burning, cognition, and cell regeneration. It can be improved through Intermittent Fasting, Hypoglycaemia, Arginine, Vitamin B3 and Intense Exercising.

Cortisol is a glucorticoid hormone synthesized by the zona fasciculata in the Adrenal Cortex of the brain. It plays a key role in combating stress. Low levels of Cortisol may affect an individual’s quality of life by causing a plethora of health issues. These include dizziness, psychological and mental ailments such as depression, heart palpitations, weakness and fatigue, emotional hypersensitivity, inability to cope with stress, muscle weakness, social anxiety, scalp ache, headache and general body ache, jitters and anxiety, extreme craving for salty foods, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea, dull or severe back pain, confusion and clumsiness, hunger pain and abdominal pain, extremely sensitive skin, non-existent or irregular menstrual period, dark circles under the eyes and insomnia, motion sickness, symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and low bladder capacity (Whiticomb, 2011). Conversely, chronically elevated levels of Cortisol are associated with Hyperglycaemia (High Blood Sugar), Hypertension, Carbohydrate Cravings, suppressed immunity, reduced libido, Type II Diabetes and Metabolic syndrome, fat deposits on the belly, neck and face and Insulin Resistance (Whiticomb, 2011).

Other deficiencies such as Iodine Deficiency have been associated with the development of goitre, mental retardation and intellectual disability (Berg, 2018).


Vitamins can be categorized into two groups: Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Water-Soluble Vitamins. Water-soluble Vitamins include C and B-complex. B-complex Vitamin group consists of eight types of compounds namely B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5 (Panthothenic Acid), B6 (Pyridoxine), B7 (Biotin), B9 (Folic Acid), and B12 (Cyanocobalamin). Fat-Soluble Vitamins include Vitamins, A, D, E and K. These groups of Vitamins are stored in the human body for a relatively longer period and can be toxic to the body when consumed in excess.

Lack of Vitamin A can cause xerophthalmia, very dry and rough skin, night blindness, slower bone growth, faulty tooth development and decreased resistance to infections. Conversely, excess Vitamin A may cause dry and itchy skin, loss of appetite, nausea, headache, dizziness, slowed growth, birth defects, increased risk for hip fractures, and blurred vision (Bellows & Moore, 2012).

Lack of Vitamin B1 may cause beriberi, muscle wasting and weakness, mental confusion, impaired growth, water retention. The effects of excessive Vitamin B1 are unknown. Vitamin B2 deficiency is associated with pellagra, which is characterized by dermatitis on lips and nose, cracks on the mouth, cataracts, red tongue, a sore and light sensitivity. Health consequences of large doses of Vitamin B2 include rashes, flushed skin and liver damage. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with the following symptoms – dermatitis, skin disorders, anaemia, nausea, kidney stones and cracks at the corners of the mouth. Excess doses may cause nerve damage. Lack of Vitamin B7 may cause nausea, muscle pains, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, anaemia, muscle pains and heart abnormalities. Lack of Vitamin B9 affects protein production and cell growth. This may impair growth. It may also cause diarrhoea and anaemia. In pregnant mothers, folate deficiency may cause children to have neural tube defects. There is no known effect of over consumption of Vitamin B9. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 may cause fatigue, anaemia, degeneration of nerves leading to tingling and numbness, and neurological disorders. There is no known effect of overconsumption of Vitamin B12 (Berg, 2017).

The best-known health consequence of Vitamin C deficiency is scurvy. This condition is characterized by fatigue, sunken eyes, pale skin, weakness, muscle pain, inflamed gums, diarrhoea, easy bruising, aching joints, poor appetite, shortness of breath, irritability, fever, and pale skin. Excess Vitamin C may cause kidney stones, rebound scurvy, diarrhoea and gout.

Lack of Vitamin D may cause rickets and flattening of the back of skull in children. In adults, lack of Vitamin D may cause osteoporosis (i.e., loss of bone mass), osteomalacia (bone and muscle weakness), greater risk of cancers, infectious disease, autoimmune diseases, and hypertension. On the contrary, too much Vitamin D may lead to the excess calcium in the blood, accumulations in the liver, decreased appetite, slowed physical and mental growth, vomiting and nausea (Bellows, & Moore, 2012).

Vitamin E deficiency largely occurs in premature infants and individuals who lack the ability to absorb fats. Health consequences include muscle weakness, loss of body movement control, vision problems, weakened immune system and loss of feeling in the legs and arms. Excess Vitamin E may pose a threat to individuals using blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (Coumadin) and statin drugs (Bellows & Moore, 2012).

The body also requires Vitamin K2 and K1 for various functions and deficiency of these two Vitamins has health consequences. Vitamin K2 plays a role in transporting Calcium Metabolism (Berg, 2014). The key health consequence of Vitamin K deficiency is haemorrhage. On the contrary, excessive amount of Vitamin K may cause liver damage, the breakdown of red blood cells and may alter blood clotting for individuals taking anticoagulants or blood-thinning drugs (Berg, 2014).

Vitamin D3 has cancer fighting properties. A deficiency of D3 goes along K2 deficiency. K2 and D3 are helpful in the absorption of Calcium. It directs where the Calcium goes. K1 helps minimize blood-bleeding disorders. K1 turns into K2. Deficiency of K2 has high risk of cancer, kidney stones, stroke, diabetes, brain disease, and osteoporosis. K2 is found in soybean products and cheese (Petersen, 2017; Berg, 2014; iHealth Tube.Com, 2018).

According to Dr. Berg, Mineral Oil or Liquid Petroleum should be avoided. It isn’t good because it depletes the body from soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E and K. This oil has hidden names and may be found in cosmetics ranging from moisturisers to foundations, laxatives and even baby oil (Berg, 2018). Mineral Oil or Liquid Petroleum is a by-product in the process of distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. It is a transparent liquid, it has no colour and is mainly made out of alkanes and paraffins. According to the Environmental Working Group, this oil may be contaminated with cancer-causing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Brad, 2014) .


Risks of Manganese deficiency include changes in mood, joint and muscle pain, bone loss, hormonal imbalances, frequently getting sick and low immunity, chronic fatigue syndrome, impaired glucose sensitivity, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), impaired reproductive abilities, changes in appetite and digestion. On the other hand, too much Manganese is associated with cognitive problems and birth defects.

According to Walker (2018) health benefits of Magnesium includes: increased energy, better nerve functioning, production of hormones, reduced anxiety behaviours and improved sleep.

Lack of Calcium is associated with weak bones and teeth in children and weakened bones in adults. Insufficient iron is associated with anaemia and inhibited intellectual performance.

According to Walker (2018) Selenium reduces liver damage by increasing nutrient absorption, helps in protein synthesis and carbohydrates. However, inadequate Selenium intake impairs the production of Testosterone and Healthy Sperm, leads to slow wound healing, loss of appetite, weakens the immune system and increases the risk of infections.

Inadequate Zinc intake is associated with muscle weakness or pain. According to Walker (2018), Zinc deficiency may lead to the following symptoms: changes in appetite combined with massive cravings for food, change in smell and taste, hair loss, digestive issues, fatigue, infertility, malfunctioning of immune system, and nerve dysfunction. According to Walker (2018), food sources for treating Zinc deficiency include: mushrooms, lamb, chicken, turkey and eggs.

According to Walker (2016), Boron currently holds the most impressive results on natural Testosterone production in terms of scientific evidence. Boron is a rare mineral on Earth, and in the whole universe. This is because boron is a “trace leftover” of the big bang, arriving Earth via cosmic dust and meteor materials. There is a good amount of scientific evidence showing the Boron and Testosterone benefits. Boron has the ability to increase testosterone levels in healthy human.

Omega-3 deficiency has several symptoms: skin related signs, concentration and attention problems, mood related signs, inflammation, and sleep and energy related signs. Skin related signs include: dry skin and hair, brittle or soft nails, rough patches of skin, dandruff, dry eyes, atopic allergies and small bumps. Attention and concentration related signs include inability to concentrate, hyperactivity and attention deficit. Mood related signs are low frustration, mood swings, depression, anxiety and irritability. Sleep and energy related signs are: poor sleep quality and fatigue. Finally, inflammation related signs relate to join pain (Kutty, 2010; Yip et al., 2013).


The daily use of Probiotics is very important, whether it is through fermented probiotic foods, or by using a daily Probiotic supplement. According to Walker (2017), the human gut flora communicates with the nervous and immune systems, thus it is vital for people to populate their gut flora with good bacteria, especially after spending decades of our lives pumping terrible food into our bodies, which leads to an imbalanced gut flora. According to Walker (2017), Kefir, Organic Grass Fed Yogurts, Raw Cheese, Kimchi and Kombucha are some great natural sources of probiotics. Dr. Berg explains what a probiotic is and their benefits. There are ten times more microbes living in and on our bodies than there are body cells. These microbes assist in making vitamins and breaking down the food, not to mention the fact that they protect our immune system (Berg, 2014).

Natural Foods and Spices such as: Black Seed Oil, Garlic, Ginger, Lemon, Turmeric, Cinnamon, Red Cayenne Paper, Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) and Honey have numerous health benefits. For example, Natural Cures (2018) emphasized the fact that Black Seed Oil, Turmeric, Ginger, Milk Thistle and Dandelion Root can be used to effectively treat liver diseases. According to Natural Cures (2018), Black Seed Oil cuts down oxidative damage to the liver, Turmeric has anti-inflammatory properties, Ginger flashes toxins from the body, Milk Thistle lowers the cholesterol level and Dandelion Root speeds the job of the liver by flushing out none-toxins.

Garlic could prevent cancer, help build the body’s immune system, prevents cardiovascular diseases, regulates blood flow in vessels, lowers the cholesterol level, reduces the risk of prostate, stomach, throat and colon cancer. Walker (2017) also hinted that when put together, Vitamin C and Garlic can help get rid of varicose veins by opening up veins.

Ginger could ease rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. It helps prevent common cough and cold. It stimulates appetite, and treats hangovers and nausea.

Cinnamon improves the ability to fight cancer, protects individuals against heart diseases and Type II Diabetes. It helps in regulating blood flow in vessels, lowering blood glucose levels, triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

Turmeric could reduce the risk of cancer and it is known to cure diseases like carpal tunnel syndrome, arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.

Red Cayenne Pepper helps in reducing the risk of cancer. It is an immune booster and an anti-oxidant.

According to Dr Berg, Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) can help you lose belly fat. It doesn’t do it directly, but indirectly and not through its Vitamins and Minerals, but through Acetic Acid. Apparently this acid has the ability to reduce the resistance to insulin, and increase glucose uptake by the muscle cells. This then lowers the blood sugars and the need for the pancreas to make insulin. The result is less insulin, more fat burning and less fat storage in the belly. The other good thing is that when insulin resistance improves, the ability to absorb Vitamins, Minerals and Protein (Amino Acid) increases. One tablespoon of ACV is recommended to be taken daily with a glass of water. If desired, for a better taste one tablespoon lemon juice can be added (Berg, 2017). However, there are side effects when taking too much ACV and Kombucha Tea. For instance, it is not recommended to take this product if you have ulcer or gastritis. If too much ACV is being taken, the following symptoms might be experienced: Difficulty Breathing, Increased Heart Rate and Insomnia (Berg, 2018).

Other plant, such as Maca, has several benefits: weight loss, boosted libido, diabetes prevention, improved heart health, preventing heart blood pressure, fighting anaemia and strengthening the immune system, helping menopause conditions, improving fertility, improving sense of well-being, reducing depression and anxiety (Natural Cures, 2018). Natural Cures (2018) suggests that some of the health issues can be overcome by avoiding the consumption of foods such as French Fries from fast food joints. According to Natural Cures (2018) such French Fries have health consequences. They are prepared using soybean oil and other ingredients that are associated with chronic diseases.

Lemon, Honey and Red Cayenne Powder also have numerous health benefits. Lemon contains Vitamin C, which stimulates the liver, boosts the Immune System, aids in digestion, lowers blood pressure, defends against bacterial infections, aids lymphatic health and fights cravings. Red Cayenne Powder is also a metabolic booster. It helps increase the blood flow by opening up blood vessels and prepares the stomach for digestion. It aids in burning calories and boosts appetite (Hess, 2016).

Lastly, Honey has several health benefits, such as: treatment of bacterial infections, gastroenteritis and ulcers. It reduces the risk of heart disease and cancer, promotes sleep, aids with diabetes and is a natural cough syrup. Elderberry Creek Farms (2016) suggested that the best approach to curing common cold and flu is combining garlic, ginger, lemon juice, honey, and cinnamon paper. Similarly, Berg (2018) suggests that Cinnamon and other ingredients such as Cocoa, Coconut Oil and others can act as an alternative for Keto and Intermittent Fasting. Multiple studies suggest starting the day with bulletproof coffee to have higher energy levels, lower fatigue and less desire to eat while fasting (Berg, 2017; Asprey, 2014). Some recommend having bulletproof coffee with cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger and honey for better tasting coffee.

Some health tips find the Ketogenic Diet (KD) as a diet containing low-carbohydrates, medium-protein and high-fat content. According to Dr Berg, a Healthy Ketosis Diet constitutes 170-200 gm (3-6 Oz) of fat, medium protein, and 7-10 cups (almost 7-10 Oz) of vegetables with no sugar and no processed carbohydrates (bread, pasta, biscuits, cereals, crackers, etc.), and is advocated to help fight cancer and other chronic diseases. Carbohydrates should be minimized to about 50 grams per day. Not to mention that Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) should be taken strictly out of the diet, just as plastic is not to be eaten by any living being (Berg, 2018). On the other hand, it is also suggested that Gluten is bad for one’s health, because it causes inflammation to individuals with celiac disease (Berg, 2017). It can also cause Gluten Intolerance (Schehr, 2018). Dr. Berg talks about whole wheat grains versus refined wheat grains. As soon as you grind the grains, it becomes exposed to oxygen and you lose a good amount of the nutrition within days. So when you buy whole grain bread or refine grain products, you have no idea when that grain was ground into flour. Yes, the whole grain has all the parts of the grain, but it’s still exposed to oxygen and thus a denatured product. Then there is the issue of gluten, which is also very high on the glycemic index scale. In my opinion whole grains are not much healthier than refined grains (Berg, 2017). Walker has highlighted the processed Grains (Gluten and Lectins) as one of the five elements to be avoided for a better and healthy gut flora (Walker, 2017). Furthermore, Walker had linked Beta Glucan, one of the main compounds found in Oats, as being a polysaccharide that has very potent anti-androgen effects on the human body. Avena Sativa is another word for the common oat. Beta Glucan has been found to suppress the Cholesterol production. Pointless reductions in Cholesterol often bring about reduced levels of steroid hormones like Testosterone (Walker, 2017). According to Berg (2017), Lactose Intolerance happens when one is unable to breakdown lactose (the sugar of the milk). Symptoms include bloating, pain in the abdomen, rumbling of intestines and inflammation. Berg (2018) suggests that people should adopt a culture of sticking to healthy diets, by sticking to their eating plans and schedules, as well as depriving themselves from certain harmful foods. Understanding the combination of vitamins is crucial (Bright Side, 2018). Injecting small amounts of two immune stimulating agents could lead to the stimulation of t-cells to destroy tumour (RT America, 2018). By stimulation, t-cells will recognize the tumour and destroy it. Agents will activate the t-cells to enable the body to destroy the tumour.


As demonstrated herein, hormonal imbalances may have health and psychological consequences. For example, Cortisol, Adrenaline and the DHEA precursor hormone may cause hormonal imbalances and ultimately cause mental health-related symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety and depression. Excess stress hormone may lead to irritability, sleep disorder, jitters and anxiety. Lack of these stress hormones may cause an individual to feel tired, sluggish, depressed, suffer from concentration problems and become moody. An overactive thyroid may trigger insomnia, depression, panic attack, anxiety and moodiness. Conversely, an underactive thyroid can cause anxiety, fatigue, moodiness and depression. This emphasizes the need to strive for hormonal body balance, and such balance would lead to a better communication within the human body, which improves human intelligent.

It cannot be stressed enough the fact that each individual needs to map his or her own personal journey towards holistic health. There is no single solution that could fit us all. The key to understanding personal health, irrespective of your age, is through a comprehensive blood test that checks for deficiencies or excess of all Vitamins and Minerals. Such a test is recommended twice a year.


  1. Asprey, D. (2014, February 18). How to Make Bulletproof® Coffee. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/4YjLMdx3YZY
  2. Bellows, L., & Moore, R. (2012). Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K – 9.315. Retrieved February 23, 2018 from http://extension.colostate.edu/topic-areas/nutrition-food-safety-health/fat-soluble-vitamins-a-d-e-and-k-9-315/
  3. Berg, E. A. (2017, January 7). Intestinal Damage & Vitamin Deficiencies. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://youtu.be/n_TZbz16C-U
  4. Berg, E. A. (2018, February 26). Iodine Deficiency & Your IQ. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://youtu.be/HLgcAR0JbRI
  5. Berg, E. A. (2017, July 1). Is Gluten Free Healthy on a Ketogenic Diet? Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/GBtT98YoPxY
  6. Berg, E. A. (2018, February 8). Making it Super Easy to Stick to Your Keto and Intermittent Fasting Plan. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/3IMIzZeyO8Y
  7. Berg, E. A. (2017, July 24). Should You do Bullet-Proof Coffee on the Ketogenic Diet with Intermittent Fasting?? Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/K4UDZoQjvTQ
  8. Berg, E. A. (2018, February 17). The 5 Keto Macronutrient Tips. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/bgD19482–Y
  9. Berg, E. A. (2014, August 20). Vitamin K2 & What It Does – Calcium Metabolism. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/HqqJYG0BuUE
  10. Berg, E. A. (2017, July 30). What is Lactose Intolerance? Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/iRPzSRWNjyY
  11. Berg, E. A. (2017, February 27). What Triggers Human Growth Hormone (HGH)? Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/TAQZATxnAfI
  12. Berg, E. (2014). Understanding Probiotics and Friendly Microbes. Retrieved May 10, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ekokdVnzww
  13. Berg, E. (2018,). Don’t Use Mineral Oil. Retrieved May 21, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dM8616188sE&feature=youtu.be
  14. Berg, E. (2017,). Are Whole Grains REALLY that Healthier than Refined Grains?. Retrieved May 10, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0N8xddsDqI
  15. Berg, E. (2017,). Why Apple Cider Vinegar Helps You Lose Belly Fat. Retrieved May 10, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zeVRgS4tMf8
  16. Berg, E. (2018,). Side Effects from Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) & Kombucha Tea. Retrieved May 10, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lbA-UL7Sqo
  17. Brad, G. (2014, June 08). 70 hidden names of Mineral Oil. Retrieved May 21, 2018, from Vibrant skin health: http://vibrantskinhealth.com/70-hidden-names-mineral-oil/
  18. Bright Side. (2018, February 13). 6 Useful Facts About Vitamin Intake. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/E2zcjJ8C1P0
  19. Elderberry Creek Farms. (2016, October 16). Cure a cold/flu in 24 hours – this natural remedy works! Retrieved March 30, 2018 from https://youtu.be/v0NfZ_mDmJU
  20. Hess, L. (2016). 17 Reasons To Detox With Lemon Water And Cayenne Pepper Drink. Retrieved February 23, 2018 from https://www.thealternativedaily.com/lemon-water-and-cayenne-pepper-drink
  21. iHealthTube.com. (2018, March 7). If You Take Vitamin D, You Need to Watch This! Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/XNgruTbX0Hw
  22. Kutty, V. (2010). Omega-3 Deficiency Symptoms. Retrieved February 23, 2018 from https://omegavia.com/deficiency-symptoms/
  23. Mehl, G. (2016, May 11). How to increase HGH. Human Growth Hormone up 2000% without supplements? Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/xCg1abJq5ZA
  24. Natural Cures. (2018, January 19). 10 Amazing Maca Root Benefits for Men and Women. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://youtu.be/nsGUJkOIon8
  25. Natural Cures. (2018, February 14). How to Treat Fatty Liver Disease Naturally at Home. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://youtu.be/fmzIxvi-Eg4
  26. Natural Cures. (2018, March 8). When You Find Out What is in McDonalds French Fries, You Will Be Shocked! Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/-h8GP57AkbM
  27. Petersen, V. (2017, November 14). Must Know Data on Vitamins D3 and K2. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://youtu.be/I49oPMxjeGQ
  28. PowerHealthYT. (2016, November 29). This is what happens to your body if you use the phone before sleeping . Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/hS8mQmfayUA
  29. Ray, S. (2015). Hormone Changes With Burnout. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from http://www.askdrray.com/hormone-changes-with-burnout/
  30. RT America. (2018, February 8). Miracle cancer treatment discovered at Stanford. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/ILQuEQuCdiI
  31. Schehr, J. (2018, February 10). Why Gluten Is a Big Problem. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/QSIHVAhnSPw
  32. Viral Hub. (2017, January 18). Side Effects of Smart Phones before Sleep. Retrieved February 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/Y1-rN2xyTDQ
  33. Walker, C. (2018). 7 Health Benefits Of Zinc Consumption: Science Explained, What I’ve Learned. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/ECmI1qrcufE
  34. Walker, C. (2018). 9 Common Health Symptoms of Zinc Deficiency. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/Za8Burg0D9s
  35. Walker, C. (2017). How To Get Rid Of Varicose Veins (Spider Veins) Naturally. Retrieved March 6, 2018 from https://youtu.be/itTCrndfGAc
  36. Walker, C. (2018). Top 8 Zinc Foods Sources For Health Benefits. Retrieved March 15, 2018 from https://youtu.be/8PYjIrHleGc
  37. Walker, C. (2017). What are Probiotics? Benefits, Foods, and Supplements. Retrieved May 10, 2018 form Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kFoIiVGDRvY
  38. Walker, C. (2016). Boron and Testosterone: Proven T Boosting Benefits. Retrieved May 10, 2018 form Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sn3KKvTsshc
  39. Walker, C. (2017). Top 5 Worst Endocrine Disruptors For Your Gut. Retrieved May 10, 2018 form Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pg8urjz09cc
  40. Walker, C. (2017). Oats and Testosterone: Do NOT Eat This Grain…. Retrieved May 10, 2018 form Youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cfMKKmocnzs
  41. Whiticomb, J. (2011). Reducing the Risk of High Cortisol. Retrieved February 23, 2018 from http://www.lifeextension.com/magazine/2011/9/Reducing-the-Risks-of-High-Cortisol/Page-01
  42. Yip, P. K., Pizzasegola, C., Gladman, S., Biggio, M. L., Marino, M., Jayasinghe, M., et al. (2013, April 19). The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid accelerates disease progression in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PLoS One .





Modern educational institutions have imposed an extraordinary importance on scientific learning to improve intelligence. In the search for higher intelligence this paper focuses on alternative methods such as Nutrition, Intermittent Fasting (IF), Meditation and Cold Showers. These have been found to influence human intelligence as well as overall well-being.


What you eat is 85% of being well, while exercising accounts for only 15% of your health (Berg, 2017). Our aim should not be only to lose weight; rather it should be to stay healthy in order to lose weight. It is a popular saying that what you are is what you eat. In this section, the focus is on certain kind of foods and their impact on the human body.

One key area of health is digestion, in which nutrients are taken in and processed, and excretion, where waste is taken out of the body. People should eat food that is easy to digest, in order to promote better assimilation. If the digestion process is not healthy, the results are poor health and disease (iHealthTube.com, 2018).

Ketogenic Diet (KD) regimen is a diet containing low-carbohydrates, medium-protein and high-fat content. It is argued that maintenance of KD induces, as well as sustains, the body’s ketonic state. It reduces the levels of glucose in the body without leading to malnutrition or caloric restrictions (Zupec-Kania & Spellman, 2009).

A Ketosis Diet constitutes 170-200 gm (3-6 Oz) of fat, medium protein, and 7-10 cups (almost 7-10 Oz) of vegetables with no sugar and no processed carbohydrates (bread, pasta, biscuits, cereals, crackers, etc.), and is advocated to help fight cancer and other chronic diseases. Carbohydrates should be minimized to about 50 grams. Not to mention that Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is strictly out of the diet, just as plastic is not to be eaten by Humans. Berg (2017) emphasises that carbohydrates should be minimized and replaced with healthy fats and moderate protein. Berg (2018) points out that the body recycles its own tissues and so the body does not lose them, but conserves them. The body does not store protein as it stores other nutrients,thus the requirement for protein in the body is less (Berg, 2018).

It has been suggested that ketosis (key-tow-sis) may influence human intelligence. It mimics starvation by putting the body in the ketosis metabolic state. Normally, the human body breaks down carbohydrates into sugar or glucose. This glucose is then transported by the liver, used as energy by the body, or stored in the muscle tissue and liver as glycogen. When the body is deprived of carbohydrates, the only source of glucose supply for body organs comes from the liver. The brain is a greedy organ accounting for about 20 percent of the energy produced by the body. It cannot directly utilize fat for energy, rather it requires it to be converted into ketone to provide energy for normal brain cell metabolism. Ketone supplies increase the number of energy factories or mitochondria in the brain cells. Accordingly, a Ketogenic Diet works to directly inhibit the key source of neuronal stress. Reactive oxygen species are a cellular metabolism by-product. These oxidants are highly reactive because they contain a single electron. They wreck by denaturing proteins. Increased oxidants are the causes of neurodegeneration, stroke and aging. Ketones (that regulate normal cell function) play an important role of enhancing the breakdown of these molecules and inhibiting their production by increasing glutathione peroxidase activity. The low carbohydrate intake also works against the oxidation of glucose. The high fat nature of KD increases the Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) such as Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid (DHA), which are both over-the-counter medications promoted as healthy supplements for the brain. The increase in PUFAs works to minimize inflammation and the production of the oxidant.

Several clinical and animal experimental studies have shown that KDs may enhance cognitive functioning of an individual (Xu et al., 2010; Appelberg et al., 2009). For example, Appelberg et al. (2009) demonstrated that KDs could improve the cognitive recovery and motor coordination in rats with traumatic brain injury. In another study, Xu et al. (2010) demonstrated that KDs enhance memory and pro-cognitive functioning of young rats and normal, health and aged rats.

In a similar study involving mice with Alzheimer’ Disease (AD), KDs were shown to attenuate the accumulation and production of cytotoxic Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) products that were associated with the AD (Van, Wera, Van Leuven, & Henderson, 2005). KDs have also been shown to reduce the loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and delay the onset of the loss of motor coordination (Zhao et al., 2006). Tai et al. (2008) also demonstrated that KDs could minimize the generation of seizure activity and neuronal cell death in experiment models of cerebral ischemia and stroke.

Anecdotal evidence have also shown that children with behavioural or development problems, treated using KD, show better cognitive functioning, improve behaviour and show increased alertness (Pulsifer et al., 2001; Nordli et al., 2001). Farasat et al. (2006) also demonstrated a therapeutic synergism between KD and social behavioural support, suggesting that emotional neurological pathways may play a crucial role in the efficacy of KD.

The Warburg Effect cited by Van Derschelden (2016) demonstrated that health cells can use ketone bodies as sources of energy from proteins. Van Derschelden (2016) also explained how patients with severe metastatic skeletal cancer who were given a maximum of three months to live, used KD to reverse the progression of cancer (Van Derschelden, 2016). Dr. Warburg was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1931 for his work on respiratory enzyme, in particular how cancer cells live on sugar (Nobelprize.org, 2014). In other words, restricting sugar in the diet might kill cancer cells.

Breast cancer cells have six times more insulin receptors than normal breast tissues. Cancer lives on glucose and thus, people who have breast cancer would benefit from a Keto Diet to cut off cancer. They could try to avoid sugary foods to keep the insulin low (Berg E., 2018).

Berg (2018) points out that the Keto Diet consists of three meals a day and intermittent fasting includes two meals and for some people, it is just one meal per day. The calories reduction does not go down at a certain rate, but they have their own rate of change, because when people reduce the frequency of eating, they start retaining more nutrients. When doing keto and intermittent fasting, people could try to keep carbohydrates at 20 grams per day (Berg E. 2018). Carbohydrates from vegetables are not counted. Berg (2017) also recommended certain supplements for those on KD and Intermittent Fasting, namely Minerals (Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium, & Calcium), and Vitamins (A, B1, B3, B5, D and K2).

The marine-based omega 3 (not vegetarian source) reduces the size of tumors by 60 to 70 percent and the numbers of tumors by 30 percent. Removing sugar from the diet only slows down the rate of cancer progression. Some little physical exercises every day could reduce the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease by 4% (iHealthTube.com, 2018).

Cortisol (the stress hormone) is a glucocorticoid hormone that is vital for the life of human beings. High cortisol increases the risk of disease and premature death. For one to lower the cortisol levels, he or she can meditate, correct electrolyte deficiencies, and supplement their brain with phosphatidylserine (Walker, 2018).

A high cholesterol diet has been linked to cancer. High cholesterol levels make the intestinal cells divide more quickly enabling tumors to form in the colon a hundred times faster than normal.

Fatty liver is a serious disease and linked to both alcohol consumption and non-alcohol reasons, such as a poor diet and sedentary lifestyle. Better nutrition is seen as a good preventive measure followed by limiting alcohol, managing cholesterol and reducing sugar intake (Natural Cures, 2018).

Are carbohydrates really a bad thing to be avoided? Most Asian diets are high on carbohydrates. A recent research claimed that women who intake low carbohydrates are 30% more likely to give birth to babies with defects of spine and brain (iHealthTube.com, 2018; Desrosiers, Siega-Riz, Mosley, & Meyer, 2018). The study was flawed on several counts (Harcombe, 2018). One cannot stress enough the importance of various lifestyle factors, ethnicity, gender and even health condition when deciding to go off carbohydrates. Perhaps balanced diet is what we really need. The diet that works for you today may not be good enough later in life. One always needs to adjust dietary needs based on where you are in your life’s journey. It is equally important to be aware of your personal health by regular check ups that could include blood, hormone and organ health.


Intermittent Fasting starves the brain of glucose, demanding the conversion of fat into ketones by the body. It challenges the brain by imposing caloric restrictions. This forces the human body to switch to the optional fat stores and convert them into ketones.

Previously, Intermittent Fasting was largely associated with weight loss. However, recent studies have shown that this type of regime can potentially improve learning capability and memory, as well as reduce the risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Varady, & Hellerstein, 2007). It is observed that fasting, which translates to caloric restrictions, helps kick-start body protective measures. These measures counteract the uncontrolled excitation signals and facilitate the healthy functioning of the brain. It was further revealed that fasting induces beneficial neurochemical changes in the brain and brings several benefits.

First, fasting challenges the brain by restricting calories. The brain induces the production of stress response pathways in response to this challenge. These pathways enable the brain to cope with disease risk and stress. The changes occurring in one’s brain during fasting often mimics those changes that occur during regular exercising, as both increase the production of neurotrophic factors, notably utilizing protein in the brain. In return, these neurotrophic factors facilitate the connection between neurones, their growth, and enhance the strength of brain synapses. Varady and Hellerstein (2007) explained what happens in the brain during Intermitted Fasting noting that the cognitive challenge induced by intermitted fasting activates neuron-circuits and increase the levels of neurotrophic factors that promote the strengthening and formation of synapses and growth of neurons.

Secondly, Intermitted Fasting is thought to stimulate stem cells to produce new nerve cells in the hippocampus (Wu, 2014). Long periods of fasting, by patients undergoing chemotherapy, lower white blood cell count. It flips the regenerative switch inducing changes in the signal pathways in hematopoietic stem cells. It also promotes the regeneration of stem cells on the hematopoietic system (Wu, 2014). According to Wu (2014), fasting stimulates ketones production, which is a source of energy for neurons. It also causes increased number of mitochondria in nerve cells and neurons, which adapt the stress introduced by intermitted fasting. The increase in the number of mitochondria within the neurons helps increase their ability to create and maintain connections with each other (Varady & Hellerstein, 2007).

Fasting has been associated with the chemical in the brain called Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), which is known to play a role in improving the overall cognitive functioning of the brain and in promoting the development and growth of nerve cells. It is indicated that during fasting the human body obtained energy from fat cells rather than from glucose, in order to stimulate its activities and the growth of brain cells. It converts fat stores into ketones and uses the ketones to stimulate BDNF production and to optimize memory building, learning and cognition (Varady & Hellerstein, 2007). This explains why individuals who fast tend to be alert and have an active part of the brain that is responsible for memory and fasting. Prolonged fasting is also known to regenerate the immune system and to protect against the damaging of the immune system (Varady, & Hellerstein, 2007). Intermittent Fasting diets have also been shown to improve memory and learning abilities (Young, 2017).

In summary, it has been suggested that combining intermittent fasting and limiting carbohydrates intake is a proven strategy to reduce risk of all chronic diseases, including cancer.


Meditation is the approach to mind training in the same way physical fitness is the approach to body training. Meditation can involve daily mindful meditation, concentration meditation and moving meditation techniques. Concentration meditation entails focusing the mind on a single point or refocusing one’s awareness on a selected object of attention. Mindful meditation involves an individual observing thoughts as they wonder and drift through the mind. It is aimed at helping an individual to see how one’s feelings and thoughts move in certain patterns. Additionally, daily meditation practice involves a person cultivating compassion. Meditation has been linked to a number of benefits including less stress, deeper relaxation, feeling of well-being, less anxiety, lower heart rate, slower respiratory rate, less perspiration, lower blood pressure and improved blood circulation (Nidich et al. 2009; Rainforth et al., 2007; Anderson et al., 2008).

Meditation has often been associated with Spiritual Intelligence (SI). There are a number of things that happen when one meditates: meditation increases neurogenesis which increases the number of brain cells; it allows people to form more intimacy with their food; meditation slows down the body; it helps humans to let go circumstances and people that no longer serve them; it makes people stop judging themselves and accept themselves; it improves humans’ memory; it enables mankind to give up stress; it improves the cardiovascular health and boosts the immune system; it makes people stop blaming themselves; and finally helps people to stop living in the past and focus on the future (Smart, 2016).

Meditation has been linked to human intelligence in several ways: enhancing Emotional Intelligence (EQ), increasing brain size, boosting memory, facilitating the working together of both brain hemispheres. Evidence further suggests that meditation improves human intelligence by creating a perfect condition for intellectual learning and growth in six different ways.

Firstly, meditation balances the right and left-brain by synchronizing the two hemispheres of the brain. In this way, it allows greater processing capability and faster neural communication. By making the creative right brain and the logical left-brain work in harmony, meditation makes it easy for an individual to solve problems, think deeply, magnify the focus and concentration and think more creatively. Brain synchronization has consistently been associated with successful individuals (Nidich et al. 2009; Rainforth et al., 2007).

Secondly, meditation increases the size of the brain by increasing the thickness of an individual’s neural “gray matter” in sections of the brain. This means that meditation makes an individual’s brain to think faster and smarter in the way exercising helps the muscles to become more enduring, denser and stronger. Accordingly, meditation has been pegged as the leading enhancer of the brain and that it can potentially increase levels of intelligence (Gard, et al., 2014).

Thirdly, meditation is reported to facilitate the development of very beneficial brainwave patterns. It is argued that meditation guides one’s brainwaves into beneficial frequencies, notably theta, delta and alpha. It is also associated with other benefits, including powerful idea generation, super creativity, overall intellectual capacity, and enhanced cognitive functioning. It is suggested that meditation is the easiest and best way for accessing these super beneficial states of the mind and that these states can transform an individual’s life in many different ways, including increasing intellectual quotient (Paul-Labrador et al., 2006).

Meditation is known to be an intuition and insight booster, and is believed to be critical to improve human abilities. It is also argued that this inner intelligence can be derived from listening and developing one’s inner voice. Alstott et al. (2009) argued that though this form of intelligence cannot be gauged with tests and quizzes, it is highly useful on all levels, as it stimulates creativity, insight, natural understanding and helps one to see beyond the identified five senses of experience.

Meditation is believed to improve Intelligence Quotient (IQ) by improving short-term and long-term memory. It is noteworthy that these two types of memory constitute the key component of IQ and intelligence. According to Anicha et al. (2012), meditation significantly increases the activity of the frontal brain lobe and the hippocampus, which are part of the brain responsible for memory. By stimulating these vital parts of the brain, meditation helps increase the capacity of short-term and long-term memory making it to be easier for one to undertake daily life, job and schoolwork.

Meditation is known to advance one’s Emotional Intelligence (EQ). According to Brewer et al. (2012) many people do not subject their emotions to reasoning and reasonably address them. Instead, outside circumstances hold people as prisoners. Colzato et al., (2006) emphasized that regular meditation gives an individual EQ enabling him or her to listen and tune into one’s feelings and work through them in a sober and calm manner. EQ also enables an individual to read the emotional clues of others and respond appropriately (Nidich et al. 2009; Rainforth et al., 2007). It has also been shown that meditation techniques combined with cold water therapy might be helpful to build and rebuild the nervous system.

Conte (2018) argues that the best way to meditate is to sit up by keeping the spine straight. While in this position, one has to close his or her eyes. The next thing to do is to focus on breathing by inhaling through the nose, holding it briefly and exhaling through the mouth.

According to Conte (2018), the brain can be strengthened by meditation, thus fighting fright response (anxiety) be minimized. People should allow thoughts while they are meditating. Just a few minutes of meditation allow the brain to focus on the present rather than the past (Conte, 2018). Conte (2018) also described how important it is to deal with anger. Anger itself is not the issue, rather it is an indication of deep seated pains, which if not treated, could lead to a continual cycle of losing temper.


Would it surprise you to know that a simple thing such as bathing in cold water could not only boost your immune system, but also make you more intelligent? Cold showers have been found to improve blood circulation, reduce depression, burn fat, improve sleep, improve fertility in men and lead to better emotional resilience.

A cold shower stimulates the brain’s blue spot that can help lower the chances of being depressed according to the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine (Shevchuk, 2008). A cold shower helps to burn fat in the body. It also helps to improve the sleep of an individual. People across cultures switched to bathing in cold water, as it has been found to improve blood circulation and even fertility. A study by the University of California found that cold showers improve emotional resilience and immunity while aiding in recovery (Freeman, Johnson, Staudenmaier, & Zisser, 2015).


It is often said knowledge is power. Well, not really. Not unless you use knowledge effectively. This paper brings together a wealth of alternative therapies that show how easily anyone can not only boost their intelligence, but also improve overall health.

There are other approaches to healing worth mentioning here for those who want to delve deeper. The major ones worth mentioning are: Reiki (Usui, 2000), Paidalajin (Xiao, 2013) and Chiropractic (Palmer, 1910). Additionally, Martel (2014) has listed five steps to healing, namely: knowledge, openness, letting go, acceptance and action. He also goes on to explain why two people following the same therapy do not show similar results. Martel (2014) explains that the difference is due to behaviours and attitudes, and the understanding that we ourselves are the key to our healing. Not being aware of inner conflicts and fears is a major impediment to holistic health. Martel (2011) has a comprehensive dictionary of ailments and diseases and their psychological significance. Notably, he associated cancer with suppressed emotion, deep resentment, a difficult divorce, loss of job, loss of a loved one, desperation and deep resentment.

As a final note, not all human body types are the same (Berg, 2017). We even have different brain types (Andrian, 2015). What is actually working for you, might not work for someone else. We need to search our inner selves to know who we really are. This is the secret to happiness and a better quality of life.

Happiness would not be less, whenever cancer test is negative.


  1. Alstott, J., Breakspear, M., Hagmann, P., Cammoun, L., & Sporns, O. (2009). Modeling the impact of lesions in the human brain. PLoS Comput. Biol. , 5.
  2. Anderson, J. W., Liu, C., & Kryscio, R. J. (2008). Blood pressure response to transcendental meditation: a meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens , 21, 310–316.
  3. Andrian, D. (2015, Feb 02). Brain Typing: The Pseudoscience of Cold Reading. Retrieved Feb 09, 2018 from https://dykaandrian.blogspot.ae/2015/02/brain-typing-pseudoscience-of-cold.html
  4. Anicha, C. L., Ode, S., Moeller, S. K., & Robinson, M. D. (2012). Toward a cognitive view of trait mindfulness: distinct cognitive skills predict its observing and nonreactivity facets. J. Pers. , 80, 255–285.
  5. Appelberg, K. S., Hovda, D. A., & Prins, M. L. (2009). The effects of a ketogenic diet on behavioral outcome after controlled cortical impact injury in the juvenile and adult rat. J Neurotrauma , 26, 497–506.
  6. Art of Manliness. (2014, July 21). The benefits of cold showers. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/qxz8QNqrzwY
  7. Berg, E. A. (2017). The New Body Type Guide: Get Healthy Lose Weight & Feel Great (4th ed.). VA, United States: Kb Publishing.
  8. Berg, E. (2018, February 8). Calorie confusions and details when doing Keto and intermittent fasting. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/vB2EtclQLRA
  9. Berg, E. (2017, December 21). Recommended Supplements on a Keto and Intermittent Fasting Plan. Retrieved February 16, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/ciyWGKrQbu0
  10. Berg, E. (2018, Feburary 8). The breast cancer & insulin connection. Retrieved Feburary 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/vE6uIM9jUW0
  11. Berg, E. (2018, January 20). Why we only need a moderate amount of protein on a Keto and intermittent. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/GA2TWA3sVCY
  12. BPLGP. (2011). PaidaLajin Self Healing. (Beijing Paida and Lajin Global Promotion Co.) Retrieved Feb 09, 2018 from http://www.paidalajin.com/en/
  13. Brewer, J. A., Worhunsky, P. D., Gray, J. R., Tang, Y. Y., Weber, J., & Kober, H. (2011). Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. , 108.
  14. Colzato, L. S., Van Wouwe, N. C., Lavender, T. J., & Hommel, B. (2006). Intelligence and cognitive flexibility: fluid intelligence correlates with feature “unbinding” across perception and action. Psychon. Bull. , 13.
  15. Conte, C. (2018, Feburary 13). How to Deal with Self-Anger. Retrieved Feburary 15, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/GCjdYbFqU0w
  16. Conte, C. (2018, February 6). Meditation 101. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from https://youtu.be/hhroD8WPT6s
  17. Conte, C. (2018, January 17). Understanding PTSD. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from https://youtu.be/txg9D02m9wk
  18. Desrosiers, T. A., Siega-Riz, A. M., Mosley, B. S., & Meyer, R. E. (2018). National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Low carbohydrate diets may increase risk of neural tube defects. Birth Defects Research , 00, 1–9.
  19. Farasat, S., Kossoff, E. H., Pillas, D. J., Rubenstein, J. E., Vining, E. P., & Freeman, J. M. (2006). The importance of parental expectations of cognitive improvement for their children with epilepsy prior to starting the ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Behav , 8, 406–410.
  20. Freeman, A. M., Johnson, S. L., Staudenmaier, P. J., & Zisser, M. R. (2015, April 17). Are Entrepreneurs “Touched with Fire”? Retrieved Feburary 9, 2018 from http://www.michaelafreemanmd.com/Research_files/Are%20Entrepreneurs%20Touched%20with%20Fire%20(pre-pub%20n)%204-17-15.pdf
  21. Gard, T., Taquet, M., Dixit, R., Holzel, B. K., Montjoye, Y., Brach, N., et al. (2014). Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners. Front Aging Neurosci , 6, 76.
  22. Harcombe, Z. (2018, February 1). Low carb diets & birth defects. Retrieved February 17, 2018 from http://www.zoeharcombe.com/2018/02/low-carb-diets-birth-defects/
  23. ICRT. (2018). What is Reiki? (The International Center for Reiki Training) Retrieved Feb 09, 2018 from http://www.reiki.org/faq/whatisreiki.html
  24. iHealthTube.com. (2018, February 7). New information about cholesterol and carbohydrates. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/IgDTWIxdkT4
  25. iHealthTube.com. (2018, January 31). New information about the sugar and cancer connection. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/JmC0g1V7yQs
  26. iHealthTube.com. (2018, January 20). This is where your health starts. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/z162ONpmMcM
  27. Infinite Waters (2016, July 1). 10 reasons you should never meditate. Retrieved February 9, 2018, from . (n.d.). From Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/IZ9_jWV2YTM
  28. Martel, J. (2011). The complete dictiononary of ailments and diseases. Charlesbourg, Canada: Les’ Editions ATMA internationales.
  29. Martel, J. (2014). The five steps to achieve healing. Charlesbourg, Canada: Les’ Editions ATMA internationales.
  30. Natural Cures. (2018, Feburary 14). How to Trat Fatty Liver Disease Naturally at Home. Retrieved Feburary 15, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/fmzIxvi-Eg4
  31. Nidich, S., Rainforth, M. V., Haaga, D. A., Hagelin, J., Salemo, J. W., Travis, F., et al. (2009). A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults. Am J Hypertens , 22 (12), 1326–1331.
  32. Nobelprize.org. (2014). The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931. (Nobel Media AB) Retrieved Feb 10, 2018 from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1931/
  33. Nordli, D. R., Kuroda, M. M., Carroll, J., Koenigsberger, D. Y., Hirsch, L. J., & Bruner, H. J. (2001). Experience with the ketogenic diet in infants. Pediatrics , 108, 129–133.
  34. Palmer, D. D. (1910). The Science, Art and Philosophy of Chiropractic. Portland, Oregon: Portland Printing House Company.
  35. Paul-Labrador, M., Polk, D., Dwyer, J. H., Velasquez, I., Nidich, S., Rainforth, M., et al. (2006). Effects of a randomized controlled trial of transcendental meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med , 166, 1218–1224.
  36. Pulsifer, M. B., Gordon, J. M., Brandt, J., Vining, E. P., & Freeman, J. M. (2001). Effects of ketogenic diet on development and behavior: preliminary report of a prospective study. Dev Med Child Neurol , 43, 301–306.
  37. Rainforth, M. V., Schneider, R. H., Nidich, S. I., Gaylord-King, C., Salerno, J. W., & Anderson, J. W. (2007). Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Hypertens Rep , 9, 520–528.
  38. Shevchuk, N. A. (2008). Adapted cold shower as a potential treatment for depression. Med Hypotheses , 70 (5), 995-1001.
  39. Smart, R. (2016, July 1). 10 reasons you should never meditate. Retrieved February 9, 2018 from Youtube.com: https://youtu.be/IZ9_jWV2YTM
  40. Tai, K., Nguyen, N., Pham, L., & Truong, D. (2008). Ketogenic diet prevents cardiac arrest-induced cerebral ischemic neurodegeneration. J Neural Transm , 115, 1011–1017.
  41. Usui, M. (2000). The Original Reiki Handbook of Dr. Mikao Usui: The Traditional Usui Reiki Ryoho Treatment Positions and Numerous Reiki Techniques for Health and Well-being. Lotus Press.
  42. Van Derschelden, M. (2016). The Ketogenic Diet and Cancer. Retrieved January 12, 2018 from YouTube.com: https://youtu.be/wFecKKZdUgU
  43. Van, d., Wera, S., Van Leuven, F., & Henderson, S. (2005). A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Nutr Metab , 2, 28.
  44. Varady, K. A., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2007). Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials. Am J Clin Nutri , 86 (1), 7-13.
  45. Walker, C. (2018, February 6). Cortisol: the death hormone (how to lower cortisol). Retrieved February 9, 2018 from https://youtu.be/no54scAeNVg
  46. Wu, S. (2014). Fasting triggers stem cell regeneration of damaged, old immune system. Retrieved January 12, 2018 from https://news.usc.edu/63669/fasting-triggers-stem-cell-regeneration-of-damaged-old-immune-system/
  47. Xiao, H. (2013). PaidaLajin Self-Healing (Kindle Edition ed.).
  48. Xu, K., Sun, X., Eroku, B. O., Tsipis, C. P., Puchowicz, M. A., & LaManna, J. C. (2010). Diet-induced ketosis improves cognitive performance in aged rats. Adv Exp Med Biol , 662, 71–75.
  49. Young, S. (2017). Fasting Diets Such as 5:2 Could Make People Smarter, Finds Study. Retrieved January 12, 2018 from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/fasting-diets-smarter-intelligence-national-institute-aging-maryland-bethesda-a8110446.html
  50. Zhao, Z., Lange, D., Voustianiouk, A., MacGrogan, D., Ho, L., & Suh, J. (2006). Ketogenic diet as a potential novel therapeutic intervention in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMC Neurosci , 7:29.
  51. Zupec-Kania, B. A., & Spellman, E. (2009). An overview of the ketogenic diet for pediatric epilepsy. Nutr Clin Pract , 23, 589–596.






There has been an increased interest in multiple dimensions of intelligence. This paper seeks to link intelligence to Micro-Expression. More specifically with Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Cultural Intelligence (CQ), and People Intelligence (PQ).

Micro-Expressions are often expressed involuntarily by humans on their faces based on the emotions experienced. These brief involuntary facial expressions are often expressed by individuals in situations where they feel they will either gain or lose. People express these expressions when they consciously make attempts to conceal their feelings or think about their feelings (Freitas-Magalhães, 2012; Ekman, 2003). They are brief in duration and last between half a second to several seconds. These expressions can be labeled, spotted and expressed in the same way basic emotions such as anger, contempt, surprise, sadness, joy, and fear are expressed (Ekman, 1999). According to Ekman (1992), basic and universal emotions including shame, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, surprise, sadness and anxiety are expressed in these Micro-Expressions. Ekman (1999) expanded the list of negative and positive emotions including that are aroused when individuals are exposed to certain situations: embarrassment, shame, relief, pride, pleasure, contentment, content amusement, pride, guilt, and anxiety. Ekman (1999) revealed that universally, people tend to express similar emotions whenever they are exposed to situations that provoke such emotions.

Micro-Expressions are classified into three depending on how they are modified by situations: simulated expressions, neutralized expressions, and masked expressions. Simulated expressions are Micro-Expressions that are not accompanied by non-genuine emotions. They are expressed as brief flashes of an expression. Neutralized expressions occur following the suppression of a genuine expression with the face remaining neutral. The successful suppression of neutralized expression makes it difficult for another person to observe them (Ekman & Friesen, 2003). On the other hand, masked expressions occur when a falsified expression completely masks a genuine expression. People tend to hide, either consciously or subconsciously, masked expressions (Ekman, & Friesen, 2003).

It can be hard to explicitly pick up and understand involuntary facial expressions. Goleman (1995) believes that these expressions are recorded and recognized in the unconscious mind as implicit competence. Goleman (1995) further believes that individuals have the capacity to recognize their own Micro-Expressions and emotions of other people and to introspectively discriminate these emotions based on such feelings. In EQ, empathy and reporting are guided by an unconscious synchrony referred to as attunement (Goleman, 1995). According to Goleman (1995) attunement relies on non-verbal communication. Involuntary behavior may be elicited by facial expressions in a process referred to as looping. Research on motor mimicry has revealed that neurons often display facial expressions through muscles in the face. It is believed that this occurs when neurons pick up facial expressions, which are then communicated to motor neurons that control the way muscles are expressed in the face. This suggests that an individual who tries to remain neutral in his or her Micro-Expression can be provoked to produce a smile by another individual displaying a smile in his or her face (Goleman, 2006). These involuntary habits, emotions, and functions take place when amygdala hijacks the pre-frontal cortex thereby impairing the better judgment and rationality (Goleman, 1995). This demonstrates how sensory memory and involuntary behavior can be interpreted and executed by the bottom brain. This demonstrates the role played by Micro-Expressions in attunement. It also reveals how one can interpret Micro-Expressions. Micro-Expressions of a hidden emotion that is displayed on a person will tend to induce same emotions in a process that Goleman (2006) referred to as emotional contagion. Individuals will the ability to introspect these Micro-Expressions have high EQ. Such individuals are believed to have the ability to read accurately and interpret emotions.


Emotions are data for making decisions, for protecting us, for initiating action, and for understanding others and oneself. Emotional Quotient and Emotional Intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to an individuals’ ability to understand and recognize their emotions and those of other people, and the ability of people to manage their relationships and behavior by utilizing this awareness. Since its introduction by John Mayer and Peter Salovey in 1990, EQ has become one of the most controversial and widely investigated constructs in psychology (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2009). The development of measuring instruments that can reliably measure EQ has also been problematic (Conte, 2005). Among the many EQ theories, Mayer and Salovey (1997)’s ability-based model has the strongest empirical and theoretical basis. The strength of this model includes the objective nature of measuring EQ and the low redundancy between the traditional concept of intelligence (Intelligence Quotation [IQ]) and personality.

The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) test is believed to be valid in predicting the effectiveness of interpersonal and social activities (Zeidner, Matthews, & Roberts, 2009). Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) model identifies four branches of EQ: emotional facilitation of thinking; appraisal, perception, the perception of emotion; employing emotional knowledge and analysis and understanding emotions; and reflective regulation of emotions. Each of these branches describes emotional abilities. Abilities constituting the four branches are vital in emotional deception detection.

It is suggested that Emotional Intelligence can facilitate the recognition of Micro-Expressions and the detection of a lie. It is believed that an individual with high EQ can read Micro-Expressions and interpret them and that this is an important part of reading people and understanding nonverbal behavior (Pazian, 2014).

Existing research have shown that by reading and interpreting universal Micro-Expressions, including anger, fear, contempt, surprise, happiness, sadness and disgust, one can detect whether someone is lying or telling the truth (Wojciechowski, Stolarski, & Matthews, 2014). Wojciechowski, Stolarski, and Matthews (2014) examined whether individuals with high EQ can effectively detect emotional liars. It was revealed that individuals that demonstrate superior emotional perceptionsare more adept at detecting deception through the identification of mismatch between verbal messages and facial messages. Wojciechowski, Stolarski, and Matthews (2014) identified two personal factors believed to predict such abilities: high EQ and female gender. The analysis of Face Decoding Test confirmed the correlation between superior face decoding and EQ. results also confirmed gender differences in EQ with females found to have higher EQ than males. Results also revealed that integration of cognitive and emotional cues are core attributes of EQ and these attributes make it possible for the individual with high EQ to detect deception.

Elsewhere, Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey (1990) consider an individual’s ability to identify emotions in other individuals as the core ability of EQ. According to Mayer, DiPaolo and Salovey (1990), this ability is necessary though not sufficient for unmasking emotional liars and detecting emotional leakages. Mayer, DiPaolo and Salovey (1990) argue that without an effective perception of another person’s emotions, an individual may not be able to effectively detect emotional deceit in another person. For Mayer and Salovey (1997) an individual with high EQ can discriminate between dishonest and honest expressions of feelings. As noted by Mayer and Salovey (1997), an individual with emotional skills should also have the ability to make use of emotion in directing attention to important information. This process, also referred to as emotional facilitation of thoughts, may be used to support and improve the basic emotional perception skills. It is also important to recognize that having emotional understanding abilities, including having the ability to recognize relations between emotions and words may help an individual in interpreting the meaning that is conveyed by emotions regarding interpersonal interactions, and in recognizing transitions among emotions (Mayer, & Salovey, 1997). This emotional reasoning process is particularly important in cases where an individual is required to combine the verbal expressions of an interlocutor with information emerging from the facial expressions of the interlocutor (Vrij & Mann, 2004).

Studies by Porter et al. (2011) and Elfenbein et al. (2010) examined EQ within the context of deception. Porter et al. (2011) found that individuals with a high ability to express and perceive emotions have the ability to convincingly feign emotions than other individuals. However, it was noted that individual with these abilities do not have the ability to prevent emotional leakage. Elfenbein et al. (2010) found similar results. However, Elfenbein et al. (2010) only measured emotion recognition ability but not the overall EQ. In another study, Baker, ten Brinke and Porter (2012) examined whether high EQ was a defining characteristic of a “detection wizard”. Results showed that total EQ score and discrimination of lies and truth were not related. However, the perception score was found to be negatively associated with the detection of deceptive targets. In this study, the experimental design was specific and involved engaging real-life videos of people who were emotionally pleading for the missing family members to return safely. Half of these people played a significant role in the murder (disappearance) of the missing ones. This study, therefore, considered liars and high-stakes emotional deceptions.

It has been suggested that there are gender differences in the cognitive-emotional processes. It is believed that females have higher EQ than males (Van Rooy, Alonso, & Viswevaran, 2005). It is argued that females are superior to males when it comes to the detection of deceptions in their romantic partners (McCornack & Parks, 1990). It is believed that this is because women are superior when it comes to reading facial expressions and other nonverbal cues than men. Women are also believed to be superior when it comes to experimental “mind-reading tasks”, including a feeling of an acquaintance and inferring the thoughts (Thomas & Fletcher, 2003). Women are also believed to be superior in perceptual sensitivity and to have subtle non-verbal affective signals (Donges, Kersting, & Suslow, 2012). They tend to have a keen interest in nonverbal cues (Hurd & Noller, 1988).


Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is an individual’s capability to effectively work, relate and interact with people in culturally diverse contexts. Individuals with high CQ have the capability to successfully achieve their objectives within culturally diverse context. Such people have CQ Drive, CQ knowledge, CQ Action and CQ Strategy (Van Dyne, Ang, Ng, Rockstuhl, Tan, & Koh, 2012). Cultural Intelligence (CQ) impacts the person’s ability to interact with different cultures in an effective manner. It enables an individual to work and relate effectively across culture (James, Lenartowicz, & Apud, 2006). This tool can help improve an individual’s performance in different cultural settings and identify meanings that could be misunderstood or lost in translation in non-verbal behavior.

Ekman (2003) sheds light on how individuals from different cultures react differently to similar events. Ekman (2003) identified emotional triggers that elicit emotions whenever an individual encounters different situations: universal triggers, unique triggers and other triggers. Universal triggers elicit similar emotional in all individuals regardless of culture or personality. On the other hand unique triggers elicit different emotions in people depending on how they were socialized (i.e., personality and culture). For example, individuals from certain culture may be irritated by people speaking loudly while people from other cultures find it acceptable. While some cultures fear oceans, others seek to explore them. In Ekman (2003)’s view these variances are the result of how individual were socialized. There are other triggers (e.g., post-traumatic stress) that are rooted in the individual’s unique experience and personality. They understand and appreciate remarkable differences in people who are from different cultures. Ekman (1992) confirmed that that people from different cultures universally express Micro-Expressions: fear, happiness, surprise, disgust, anger sadness, and contempt. It is further argued that individuals with high CQ have same social sensibilities while relating and interacting with individuals from diverse cultures who display different and unique emotions in ways that are not familiar with them.


People Intelligence (PQ) indicates the individual’s capacity to work and relate with other people. PQ has three aspects: self-management; openness to others; and interpersonal effectiveness. People with high PQ are known to work well with people. They create a shared meaning, inspire and motivate others to work together as a team in order to actualize reality. They are self-aware and know their weaknesses and strengths. They have the ability to use their strengths to address or compensate for their weaknesses.

The Big Five personality traits, or the Five Factor Model (FFM) is a well-known model that describes personality. The model was initially proposed by Tupes & Christal (1961) and later improved by Digman (1990). The five factors are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism, also known as OCEAN. Openness is the curiosity to experience something new; Conscientiousness is the tendency to be either organized or careless; Extraversion explains whether the person is outgoing or socially reserved; Agreeableness describes friendliness or compassion against being detached; and Neuroticism is about being sensitive or nervous against being secure and confident.

It is believed that an individual’s PQ is determined by factors such as experience, skills, social network, knowledge and Emotional Intelligence (EQ) (Ekman, Friesen, & O’Sullivan, 1988). It is also argued that people with high EQ have high PQ and have the capability to discriminate genuine facial expressions to fake ones (Ekman, Friesen, & O’Sullivan, 1988). It has been suggested that Micro-Expressions can use used for authenticity judgment (i.e., genuine and fake smiles) (Skinner, & Mullen, 1993; Frank, Ekman, & Friesen, 1993; Schmidt, Bhattacharya, & Denlinger, 2009).


A review of related literature has found links between Micro-Expression and human intelligence in the form of EQ, CQ and PQ. Understanding this concept could help detecting lies and avoiding deception. Applications of this technique are in interview techniques and criminal investigation that could allow the investigator to catch the liars. Not able to identify subtle non-verbal behavior could have disastrous consequences.


1.Baker, A., ten Brinke, L., & Porter, S. (2012). Will get fooled again: Emotionally intelligent people are easily duped by high-stake deceivers. Leg. Crim. Psychol , 18, 300–313.

2.Conte, J. M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measure. J Organ Behav , 26, 433–440.

3.Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology , 41, 417–440.

4.Donges, U., Kersting, A., & Suslow, T. (2012). Women’s Greater Ability to Perceive Happy Facial Emotion Automatically: Gender Differences in Affective Priming. PLoS One , 7, 1–5.

5.Ekman, P. (1999). Basic Emotions. In T. Dalgleish, & M. Power, Handbook of Cognition and Emotion. Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

6.Ekman, P. (2003). Emotions Revealed. New York: Henry Holt and Co.

7.Ekman, P. (1992). Facial Expressions of Emotion: An Old Controversy and New Findings. London: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

8.Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (2003). Unmasking the Face. Cambridge: Malor Books.

9.Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & O’Sullivan, M. (1988). Smiles when lying. J Pers Soc Psychol , 54, 414–420.

10.Elfenbein, H. A., Foo, M. D., Mandal, M., Biswal, R., Eisenkraft, N., Angeline, L., et al. (2010). Individual differences in the accuracy of expressing and perceiving nonverbal cues: New data on an old question. J Res Pers , 44, 199–206.

11.Frank, M. G., Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1993). Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment. J Pers Soc Psychol , 64, 83–93.

12.Freitas-Magalhães, A. (2012). Microexpression and macroexpression. In V. S. Ramachandran, Encyclopedia of Human Behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 173–183). Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press.

13.Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

14.Goleman, D. (2006). Social intelligence: the new science of human relationships. New York: Bantam Books.

15.Hurd, K., & Noller, P. (1988). Decoding deception: A look at the process. J Nonverbal Behav , 12, 217–233.

16.James, P. J., Lenartowicz, T., & Apud, S. (2006). Cross-Cultural Competence in International Business: Toward a Definition and a Model. Journal of International Business Studies , 37 (4), 525–43.

17.Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter, Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3–31). New York: Basic Books.

18.Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: a component of emotional intelligence. J Pers Assess , 54, 772–781.

19.McCornack, S. A., & Parks, M. R. (1990). What women know that men don’t: sex differences in determining the truth behind deceptive messages. J Soc Pers Relat , 7, 107–118.

20.Pazian, M. (2014, January 03). The Benefits of Truth within Leadership. Retrieved 2017, from Elearning! Magazine: http://www.people-intell.com/blog-pii/item/6-the-benefits-of-truth-within-leadership.html

21.Porter, S., ten Brinke, L. M., Baker, A., & Wallace, B. (2011). Would I lie to you? “leakage” in deceptive facial expressions relates to psychopathy and emotional intelligence. Pers Individual Dif , 51, 133–137.

22.Schmidt, K. L., Bhattacharya, S., & Denlinger, R. (2009). Comparison of Deliberate and Spontaneous Facial Movement in Smiles and Eyebrow Raises. J Nonverbal Behav , 33, 35–45.

23.Skinner, M., & Mullen, B. (1993). Facial Asymmetry in Emotional Expression – a Metaanalysis of Research. British Journal of Social Psychology , 30, 113–124.

24.Thomas, G., & Fletcher, G. J. (2003). Mind-reading accuracy in intimate relationships: Assessing the roles of the relationship, the target, and the judge. J Pers Soc Psychol , 85, 1079–1094.

25.Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1961). Recurrent Personality Factors Based on Trait Ratings. Personnel Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Lackland Air Force Base, TX.

26.Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Ng, K. Y., Rockstuhl, T., Tan, M. L., & Koh, C. (2012). Sub-dimensions of the four factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence. Social and personality psychology compass , 6 (4), 295-313.

27.Van Rooy, D. L., Alonso, A., & Viswevaran, C. (2005). Group differences in emotional intelligence scores: Theoretical and practical implications. Pers Individ Dif , 38, 689–700.

28.Vrij, A., & Mann, S. (2004). Detecting deception: The benefit of looking at behavioral, auditory and speech content related cues in a systematic manner. Group Decision and Negotiation , 13 (1), 61–79.

29.Wojciechowski, J., Stolarski, M., & Matthews, G. (2014). Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception. PLoS ONE , 9 (3).

30.Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2009). What we know about Emotional Intelligence: How it affects learning, work, relationships and our mental health. Cambridge: MIT Press.





Gardner (1983) challenged the conventional view of intelligence by proposing seven (later extended to nine) types of intelligence and how people learn. Those with naturalistic intelligence are smart in dealing with the natural world while those with existential intelligence as asking deep moral questions; those with visual-spatial intelligence think in terms of physical space; those with bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence have a keen sense of their body; those with musical intelligence are sensitive to sound; those with interpersonal intelligence are better at interacting with others; those with intrapersonal intelligence are in tune with their inner feelings; linguistic intelligence refers to those good with words; and logical-mathematical intelligence describes higher ability to reason and calculate (Gardner, 1983).

Multiple intelligence are hard to measure and difficult to assess (Luskin, 2013). While Gardner (1983) proposed a limited set of intelligence, intelligence is not black and white. Emmons (2000), for example, considered spiritual intelligence an extension to Gardner’s concept of multiple intelligence. Marty Klein is a researcher on sexual intelligence (Kerner, 2012). This paper limits its analysis to three types of intelligence – EQ, CQ and PQ.

This paper refers to intrapersonal intelligence as a subset of Emotional Intelligence (EQ), whereas interpersonal intelligence is referred to as People Intelligence (PQ). This paper first discusses the meaning of three types of intelligence that are rapidly gaining importance in the field of crime scene investigation techniques. These are Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Cultural Intelligence (CQ) & People Intelligence (PQ). The significance of these intelligences within investigation techniques is discussed in detail.


Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is a psychological concept that defines an individuals’ ability to identify, understand, use and manage their emotions in a way that helps relieve stress, empathize and communicate effectively with other people, defuse conflict and overcome challenges (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). This ability allows individuals to understand and recognize what other people are experiencing emotionally. For the most part, this understanding and recognition is a nonverbal process that influences how well individuals connect with other people. It also influences people’s thinking about others. EQ differs based on an individual’s intellectual ability.

Golemon (1998) indicated that unlike intellectual ability, which is acquired, EQ is learned. Golemon (1998) and other proponents of this new psychometric, including psychologists Mayer & Salovey (1997) emphasize that EQ exists innately in certain individuals. Golemon (1998) added that everyone has a certain level of EQ and have the ability to monitor their own emotional states, emotions and enhance their EQ. Golemon (1998) suggests that society, both the private and public sector, should dedicate more resource towards research and programs that would help people develop EQ. Other researchers (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) regard EQ as a skill that combines emotions (feelings) and cognitions (thoughts). Mayer & Salovey (1997) placed EQ within the context of well-being, health and personality.

EQ is defined by four key attributes: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Chong, Lee, Roslan, & Baba, 2015). Self-awareness is an individual’s ability to recognize their emotions and how they affect their thoughts. Self-management is the individuals’ ability to control behaviors and impulse feelings and manage their emotions in healthy way, follow through on commitments, take initiatives, and adapt to changing situations and circumstances. On the other hand, social awareness is the ability of individuals to understand their needs; emotions; other people’s concerns; pick up on emotional cues; recognize the power of organization or group’s dynamics and feel comfortable socially. Lastly, relationship management is the individual’s ability to communicate clearly, develop and maintain good relationships, influence and inspire other people, manage conflict and work well with team members.

A large body of research has suggested a possible link between EQ and criminal behaviour suggesting that criminal psychologists can understand criminal behaviour by understanding their EQ and ultimately profiling a criminal accordingly (Caspi, et.al., 1994; Eysenck, 1996; Gottfredson & Travis, 1990; Hayes & O’Reilly, 2013; Lynam, 1993; Megreya, 2013; Puglia, et.al., 2005; Sharma, et.al., 2015).


Cultural Intelligence (CQ) refers to the ability of an individual ability to recognize and understand values, behaviors, customs, values and languages of a people and to apply that knowledge in order to achieve specific goals. It enables an individual to work and relate effectively across culture (James, Lenartowicz, & Apud, 2006). This tool can help improve an individual’s performance in different cultural settings and identify meanings that could be misunderstood or lost in translation in non-verbal behavior. Securing and using CQ can enable an investigator to function effectively in multicultural settings, blend into the community and gain acceptance and thus, conduct a successful investigation.

Cultural Intelligence (CQ) impacts the person’s ability to interact with different cultures in an effective manner. A popular model of CQ proposed by Earlye & Ang (2003) has four dimensions – Cognitive, Meta-cognitive, Motivational, and Behavioral. Cognitive focuses on the person’s knowledge of cultural practices; Meta-cognitive focuses on the awareness of cultural background during interpersonal interactions; Motivational focuses on the individual’s drive to learn more about culture; and Behavioral aspect focuses on their verbal and non-verbal abilities (Ward, Fischer, Lam, & Hall, 2009).


The Big Five personality traits, or the Five Factor Model (FFM) is a well-known model that describes personality. The model was initially proposed by Tupes & Christal (1961) and later improved by Digman (1990). The five factors are Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism, also known as OCEAN. Openness is the curiosity to experience something new; Conscientiousness is the tendency to be either organized or careless; Extraversion explains whether the person is outgoing or socially reserved; Agreeableness describes friendliness or compassion against being detached; and Neuroticism is about being sensitive or nervous against being secure and confident.

People Intelligence (PQ) makes individuals aware of the inner motivations of people they interact with in everyday life. Individuals with high PQ have the ability to perceive what makes their coworkers, friends, and family tick. They can read non-verbal behaviour and body language of other people and accurately weigh choices they are presented with in work, family life and relationships and accurately judge whether their personal life goals to together well or conflict. Police detectives and other investigators with high PQ are inquisitive about people, open to own experiences, show willingness to change themselves can anticipate their actions and desires, and ultimately predict behaviors of offenders or criminals (Zacker & Bard, 1973).


It is suggested that EQ can help criminal investigators recognize to a certain extent, intentions of other people and consequently in determining whether an individual is being manipulative. As such, investigators can use EQ as an element of investigation. As revealed in multiple studies, EQ can provide detectives with clues about offenders and their mode of operation. For example, the FBI investigator, Robert Ressler became sensitive to significant difference in mode of operations between John Gacy and Ted Bundy. Bundy would first use a blunt strike to know out victims. On the contrary, Gacy would use deceit to kill his victims (Guy, 2016). On this basis, an investigator can check whether the offender’s victim was prone to abuse or deceit. The investigator can also determine the mode of operation of the perpetrator (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 2000).

Elsewhere, it has been argued that higher EQ is a predictor of satisfaction in life (Mayer et al., 2000). Mayer et al. (2000) believe that individuals with high EQ are more likely to exhibit healthier psychological adaption because such people demonstrate adaptive defense behavior against adaptation. Similarly, studies on performance measures of EQ have suggested that higher EQ levels can be associated with increased and improved relationships with family and friends. On the contrary, lower EQ have been associated with problematic behavior and unfavourable interactions with family and friends (Mayer et al., 2000). Lower EQ was associated with trouble-prone behavior and lower self-reported violent behavior among college students (Mayer et al., 2000). In Mayer et al. (2000), lower EQ was measured using Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence (MSCEIT) and found to associate with increased involvement in deviant behavior, including the involvement in vandalism and physical fights and increased use of alcohol and illegal drugs. Erasmus (2007) revealed that individuals who are lacking in emotional and social competence lack the ability to relate and empathize with others and are self-centered. Erasmus (2007) also found that students with delinquency problems (i.e., participate in crimes, sale drugs, engage in sexual behavior, truancy, dishonesty and pornography) experience emotional and personal problems. A prospective study by Fortin (2003) further revealed that students with delinquency behavior lack self-control and that this makes unable to accept other people and react to criticism in a better way. Fortin (2003) also suggested that a lack of the ability to control moods and emotions makes these delinquent students to conflict with adults and other students. In another study investigating the EQ-delinquency behavior, Chong et al. (2015) confirmed that students with higher delinquency behavior had lower EQ than the normal students.

Researchers in various fields including criminology, sociology and psychology have also suggested a possible correlation between criminal behavior and EQ with remarkable interests being given to personality and intelligence (Frisell, Pawitan, & Langstrom, 2012; Lynam, Moffitt, & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1993; Eysenck, 1996). Two studies (Frisell, Pawitan, & Langstrom, 2012; Lynam, Moffitt, & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1993) suggested that criminal offenders tend to have lower EQ than non-offenders. Other studies have associated criminal behavior with personality variables including low level of self-control; high level of adverse emotionality; and high levels of neuroticism, psychoticism and extraversion; and difficulty in impulse control (Mottus et al., 2012; Caspi et al., 1994; Gottfredson & Travis, 1990).

Cultural orientation has been found to influence criminal violence because they are supportive of violence (Messner, 1988). Culture is a set of values and beliefs. Therefore they can be learned through social interactions and passed on through groups and across generations (Holt, 2009). Ferrell (1995) states that criminal behaviour is subcultural behaviour, whether carried out by an individual or a group. Research has found a relationship between criminal acts and symbolism, which is commonly found in criminal subcultures. This highlights the importance of CQ in criminal profiling.

A recent study by Gottfredson and Travis (1990) associated criminal behavior with high level of Neuroticism and low levels of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness (PQ). Other studies found conflicting results regarding correlation between criminal behavior and EQ. Results by Moriarty et. al. (2001) showed that adolescent sex offenders and age-matched none-offenders had similar EQ variables. However, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) revealed a deficit in offenders’ attention to feeling. In another study, Puglia et al. (2005) did not find significant difference between controls and adult offenders in EQ, as measured by MSCEIT. However, in Puglia et al. (2005) sex offenders had a higher score than none-sex offenders on a MSCEIT scale. In Hayes and O’Reilly (2013), 26 male juveniles were found to have lower EQ than 30 control male juveniles. On the contrary, Hemmati et al. (2004) found adult male offenders to have higher trait EQ levels than the normative sample of Emotional Question Inventory (Hoaken et al., 2007; Owen, & Fox, 2011; Megreya, 2013). Other studies supporting low EQ in offender found that violent perpetrators had low score than nonviolent offenders in empathy and facial expression recognition (Hoaken et al., 2007; Owen, & Fox, 2011). EQ was also found to strongly correlate with criminal thinking styles (Megreya, 2013). Megreya et al. (2012) found EQ to correlate with criminal styles of thinking, which differed with the types of offense. Violent offenders were found to experience more problems on multiple components of EQ than offenders, including social problem solving, personal control, self-regulation, mental health, and emotional stability (McMurran et al., 2001; Ross, & Fontao, 2007; Mak, 1991; Jones et al., 2007). Elsewhere, Megreya (2013) examined the link between criminal behavior and EQ using samples of Egyptian adult none-offenders and offenders. Megreya (2013) further examined the possible correlation between EQ and types of offenses by dividing offenders who had sentenced into three categories: those sentenced for murders, drugs, and theft. Results were in conformity with indirect and direct aggression theory that physical aggression requires less social intelligence than indirect aggression. According to developmental theory of aggressive behavior, direct verbal aggression requires less social intelligence than indirect aggression, and physical aggression requires more social intelligence than direct verbal aggression (Fisher, Beech, & Browne, 1999). This theory suggests that high EQ levels constrain individuals from participating in criminal activities. It was suggested that EQ training should be included in the forensic intervention programs. Elsewhere, it was suggested that criminal behavior could be minimized by improving on components of EQ, including facial expression recognition, social problem solving and anger management (Penton-Voak et al., 2013; Walters, 2008; Nelis et al., 2009).

Sharma et al. (2015) examined the relationship between criminal behavior and low levels of EQ using a sample of 202 subjects. The sample consisted of 101 matched normal controls and 101 convicted offenders. The offender group was picked from a jail and consisted of persons convicted of robbery, rape, murder and other different crimes. The control groups and the intervention groups were matched on gender, marital status, occupation, education, and age and assessed on Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII) and General Health Questionnare-12. The convicted offenders group received significantly lower score on MEII domains than the control group. These domains include interpersonal awareness (other emotions), intrapersonal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal management (other emotions), intrapersonal management, and aggregate emotional quotient.

Canter (1994) identified crime as a form of interpersonal relations/connection, involving one person observing specific ways via which an offender treats the victim. He emphasized the dependency between personality traits and behaviors of a criminal. Canter (1994) likens crime to theoretical performance. Canter (1994) contests that criminal offenders use violence to dramatically write for themselves and cast their crime victims in three key roles: people, vehicles and objects.

This discussion explains how an investigator without adequate understanding of EQ, CQ and PQ could easily misinterpret a person’s behaviour.


As confirmed in this paper, findings from several studies discussed in this paper suggest that cyber profiling can be improved by adding the element of EQ, CQ and PQ as forensic experts can interview offenders with a view to determine their EQ. Certain criminal investigations could further benefit from sexual and spiritual intelligence which might reveal motives behind the criminal activity.

This paper analyzed how multiple intelligences (in particular EQ, CQ and PQ) could make criminal investigation more effective. EQ is useful to understand one’s own emotions and this helps the investigator defuse interpersonal conflicts. EQ teaches the importance of self-awareness and how this ability could help the investigator pick up vital emotional cues when interviewing people.

CQ is equally important because people from different ethnic origins display different behaviour. The knowledge of different customs will allow the investigator to behave in a suitable manner and not jeopardize the investigation by giving out wrong signals. Investigation of certain crimes requires a good deal of people interaction. PQ is vital because not knowing personality traits could lead the investigator in the wrong track.

Considering these studies it is clear that the importance of EQ, CQ and PQ within investigation techniques cannot be denied. A person’s openness or the lack of it, their cultural background could be valuable information to understand them. These are indicators of certain personality traits but cannot be interpreted as a judgment of their behaviour.


1.Canter, D. (1994). Criminal Shadows. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.

2.Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R. F., & Schmutte, P. S. (1994). Are some people crime-prone? Replications of the personality-crime relationship across countries, genders, races, and methods. Criminology , 32, 163–96.

3.Chong, A. M., Lee, P. G., Roslan, S., & Baba, M. (2015). Emotional Intelligence and At-Risk Students. SAGE Open.

4.Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology , 41, 417–440.

5.Earley, C. P., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural Intelligence Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Stanford University Press.

6.Emmons, R. A. (2000). Is Spirituality an Intelligence? Motivation, Cognition, and the Psychology of Ultimate Concern. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion , 10 (1), 3-26.

7.Erasmus, C. P. (2007). The role of emotional intelligence in the adaptation of adolescents boys in a private school. University of South Africa, Pretoria.

8.Eysenck, H. J. (1996). Personality and crime: where do we stand? Psychol Crime Law , 2, 143–52.

9.Ferrell, J. (1995). Culture,Crime, and Cultural Criminology. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture , 3 (2), 25-42.

10.Fisher, D., Beech, A., & Browne, K. (1999). Comparison of sex offenders to no offenders on selected psychological measures. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology , 43, 473–491.

11.Fortin, L. (2003). Students’ antisocial and aggressive behaviour: Development and prediction. Journal of Educational Administration , 41, 669-688.

12.Frisell, T., Pawitan, Y., & Langstrom, N. (2012). Is the association between general cognitive ability and violent crime caused by family-level confounders? PLoS ONE .

13.Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

14.Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.

15.Gottfredson, M. R., & Travis, H. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

16.Guy, F. (2016, March 12). Robert Ressler: Psychological Profiling of Serial Killers. Retrieved 2017 from https://www.crimetraveller.org/2016/03/robert-ressler-psychological-profiling/

17.Hayes, J. M., & O’Reilly, G. (2013). Psychiatric disorder, IQ, and emotional intelligence among adolescent detainees: a comparative study. Legal Criminological Psychology , 18, 30–47.

18.Hemmati, T., Mills, J. F., & Kroner, D. G. (2004). The validity of the Bar-On emotional intelligence quotient in an offender population. Personality and Individual Differences , 37, 695–706.

19.Hoaken, P. N., Allaby, D. B., & Earle, J. (2007). Executive cognitive functioning and the recognition of facial expressions of emotion in incarcerated violent offenders, non-violent offenders, and controls. Aggress Behav , 33, 412–421.

20.Holt, T. (2009, December). Cultural Theories. Criminology .

21.James, P. J., Lenartowicz, T., & Apud, S. (2006). Cross-Cultural Competence in International Business: Toward a Definition and a Model. Journal of International Business Studies , 37 (4), 525–43.

22.Jones, A. P., Forster, A. S., & Skuse, D. (2007). What do you think you’re looking at? Investigating social cognition in young offenders. Crim Behav Ment Health , 17, 101–106.

23.Luskin, B. J. (2013, Sep 30). How are you smart? Retrieved 2017 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-media-psychology-effect/201309/how-are-you-smart

24.Lynam, D. R., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1993). Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: class, race, test motivation, school failure, or self-control? J Abnorm Psychol , 102, 187–196.

25.Mak, A. S. (1991). Psychosocial control characteristics of delinquents and nondelinquents. Crim Justice Behav , 18, 287–303.

26.Mayer, J. D. (2013). Personal Intelligence: The Power of Personality and How It Shapes Our Live. NY: Scientific American.

27.Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is Emotional Intelligence. In P. Salovey, & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications (pp. 3-34). New York: Harper Collins.

28.Mayer, J. D., Caruso, R., & Salovey, P. (2000). Emotional intelligence meets traditional students for an intelligence. Intelligence , 27, 267-298.

29.McMurran, M., Fyffe, S., McCarthy, L., Duggan, C., & Latham, A. (2001). Stop & Think! Social problem-Solving therapy with personality-disordered offenders. Crim Behav Ment Health , 11, 273–85.

30.Megreya, A. M. (2013). Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders. Crim Behav Ment Health , 23, 56–71.

31.Megreya, A. M., Bindemann, M., & Brown, A. (2012). Criminal thinking in a Middle Eastern prison sample of thieves, drug dealers and murderers. Leg Criminological Psychol Forthcoming .

32.Messner, S. F. (1988). Research on cultural and socioeconomic factors in criminal violence. Psychiatr Clin North Am. , 11 (4), 511-525.

33.Moriarty, N., Stough, C., Tidmarsh, P., Eger, D., & Dennison, S. (2001). Deficits in emotional intelligence underlying adolescent sex offending. J Adolesc , 24, 743–51.

34.Mottus, R., Guljajev, J., Allik, J., Laidra, K., & Pullmann, H. (2012). Longitudinal associations of cognitive ability, personality traits and school grades with antisocial behavior. Eur J Pers , 26, 56–62.

35.Nelis, D., Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence: (how) is it possible? Personality Individ Differ , 47, 36–41.

36.Owen, T., & Fox, S. (2011). Experiences of shame and empathy in violent and non-violent young offenders. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol , 22, 551–63.

37.Penton-Voak, I. S., Thomas, J., Gage, S., McMurran, M., McDonald, S., & Munaf, M. (2013). Increasing recognition of happiness in ambiguous facial expressions reduces anger and aggressive behaviour. Psychol Sci , 24 (5), 688–97.

38.Puglia, M. L., Stough, C., Carter, J. D., & Joseph, M. (2005). The emotional intelligence of adult sex offenders: ability based EI assessment. J Sex Aggress , 11, 249–58.

39.Ross, T., & Fontao, M. I. (2007). Self-regulation in violent and non-violent offenders: a preliminary report. Crim Behav Ment Health , 17, 171–8.

40.Sharma, N., Prakash, O., Sengar, K. S., Chaudhury, S., & Singh, A. R. (2015). The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals. Ind Psychiatry J. , 24 (1), 54-58.

41.Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1961). Recurrent Personality Factors Based on Trait Ratings. Personnel Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Lackland Air Force Base, TX.

42.Walters, G. D. (2008). Anger management training in incarcerated male offenders: differential impact on proactive and reactive criminal thinking. Int J Forensic Ment Health , 8, 214–7.

43.Ward, C., Fischer, R., Lam, F. S., & Hall, L. (2009). The Convergent, Discriminant, and Incremental Validity of Scores on a Self-Report Measure of Cultural Intelligence. Educational and Psychological Measurement , 69 (1).

44.Zacker, J., & Bard, M. (1973). Effects of conflict management training on police performance. Journal of Applied Psychology , 58 (2), 202-208.

Translate »