Using Projective Tests have become quite common in Forensic Psychology. This paper reflects upon the role of Projective Tests within Forensics Psychology as a tool to decode criminal behaviour.


Forensic Psychology is the branch of science that provides a clear meeting point between law and human behaviour (Ioannou, Canter, Youngs, & Synnott, 2015). It entails measuring critical legal practices, especially the one pertaining to professional witness and testimony within the context of the investigation. The most significant and interesting issue within Forensic Psychology is the ability of witness to provide a clear and error-free testimony in the courtroom concerning the incidence, information that can be verified to be legally correct. In order to have a non-doubtful testimony, the Forensic Psychologist must possess a deeper know-how about rules and regulations regarding the legal system and be able to comprehend them inside out. In other words, they must comprehend the entire judicial system.

A trained Forensic Psychologist is confident in providing quality testimony that avoids confusion in the courtrooms. Costanzo (2013) points out that Forensic Psychologists are specialists in human behaviour. Neuropsychologists, specialists in the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours, are required by courtrooms to discuss issues relating to the brain and human behaviour. They may further be used to discern whether an individual is proficient in the trial.

Neal (2016) indicates that most of the queries asked by Forensic Psychologists are connected to the legal system and the answers are in a language that can be understood by everyone in the court. It is always advisable for any Forensic Psychologist to ensure that he or she is able to translate the information from a psychological perspective to a courtroom perspective. This will ensure that the case gets the treatment it deserves.

According to Costanzo (2013), Forensic Psychologists are resourceful personnel who uphold dignity in their practices. They are called upon to train other people in the various fields of the profession. They work with police departments to ensure criminal issues are dealt with in a manner that is legally clear. Interestingly, they help in the judicial selection of personnel in the United States of America.

In addition, Forensic Psychologists aid in enacting laws. They are trained to ensure they can fully handle behaviours of the victims of crisis and suicidal practices. They also offer counselling to affected families (Ioannou, Canter, Youngs, & Synnott, 2015).


A Projective Test is a personality test aimed at letting individuals respond to unclear stimuli, internal conflicts and presumably examining in-depth emotions displayed by the individual (Bornstein, 2007). It is in contrary to a self-report test or an objective test that is linked to a structured method as responses are evaluated about presumed common standards, for instance, an exam with multiple choices. Similarly, they are restricted to the exam details. The answers to the predicted test are detailed for a reason as opposed to the basis of presumptions on the meaning, for instance, in the objective analysis. Projective Tests originate from psychoanalysis, which states that people have unconscious motivations as well as attitudes that are beyond their conscious awareness.

The Austrian neurologist, Sigmund Freud, is known as the founder of psychoanalysis, which is based on a dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was also well known for his analysis on psychosexual development of an individual (Patel, 2013). Freudian psychology emphasized the importance of understanding unconscious information as a predictor of our everyday behaviour. He came up with the concept projecting one’s own unconscious onto a person or object (AllPsych, 2018).

According to Miller (2015), the essential theoretical basis in Projective Test relates to given questions raised; the responses will be consciously stipulated as well as socially tested. The answers are not linked to the unconsciousness of the respondent or the implicit motivations or views. The respondent’s in-depth motives are not necessarily recognized as conscious by the respondent, or he/ she may be unable to express themselves verbally or in an appropriate structure as guided by the interviewer. Advocates of the Projective Test emphasize that the uncertainty of provocations given in the test enables subjects to give out their hidden thoughts that fail to be captured by other tests. From the 1980s to the 1990s, research conducted has shown that implicit motivation is reflected in the increased use of tools linked to the research.

Rorschach Inkblot is a widely known Projective Test established in 1921 to aid diagnosis of schizophrenia (Hatano, Yamada, Nakagawa, Nanri, Kawase, & Kenji, 2014). The subjects’ perceptions of inkblots are recorded and analysed using psychological interpretation or even algorithms. The reactions are then evaluated in many ways by considering not only the information given but also the duration it took before a response is made. Other variables considered are – how the given response compares to other people’s perceptions for similar drawing, and lastly, the aspect of the picture and how it was focused. Experts are consulted to conduct Projective Test like Rorschach Test in coming up with consistent and valid outcomes.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is identified as a critical Projective Test in which a person evaluates unclear events of others, and he or she is interviewed to narrate some aspects of the scene, for instance, what caused the scene, what are the feelings of the people and what are the possible outcomes. The above process assesses the subject’s descriptions while discovering their motivations, conflicts, as well as outlooks. Researchers may employ scoring systems aimed to establish a reliable methodology of expressed thoughts in addition to behaviours.

The Szondi test is a nonverbal projective personality test developed by Léopold Szondi. Szondi lists eight human drive needs that are linked to action. A Szondi test involves showing facial photographs to a person, the photographs are displayed in six groups of eight each. The subject is asked to select the most appealing and most repulsive photos in each group. The selection provides an indication of the satisfied and unsatisfied needs of the subject’s personality (Zaffaroni & Oliveir, 2013).

To sum up, Projective Test relates to the respondent’s perceptions, answers, motivations and unconsciousness attitudes (Cariola, 2014).


According to Sloane (1992), behavioural analysis is the science that relates to the way a person or animal conducts oneself, to his surroundings and to others. Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer (1991) defined it as an organized study of variables influencing the behavioural patterns of the organisms. Behaviour Analyst Certification Board (2017) on the other hand, said that behavioural analysis is a scientific study focusing on the principles of learning and behaviour.

The study aims to provide understanding, give explanation, classification and prediction on the behaviour. This science of behavioural analysis is not similar to other areas of psychological studies or fields that attempts to dissect behaviour (Sloane, 1992). The science of behavioural analysis is commonly used in detecting mental aptitude, undertaking behavioural assessments, determining appropriate treatment plans for mental patients, training practitioners and as well as in crime investigations (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017).

In the study of behavioural analysis, there were two primary and distinct fields of study that came into existence and these are the experimental analysis of behaviour and applied behaviour analysis. The experimental analysis of behavioural analysis is the scientific foundation of the discipline in which various empirical studies, research, literatures and data on behavioural analysis had been accumulated over the years in the furtherance of the understanding of this science. It is where the applied behavioural analysis came about. (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017)

Applied behavioural analysis is a methodical approach that aims to influence the established vital social behaviour by identifying relevant and similar environmental variables thereby producing a significant behavioural change as a result of the usage of such findings (Behavior Analyst Certification Board, 2017). The latter aspect of behavioural analysis comes into play when it is conducted in a real-world setting with raw and unadulterated subject study rather that conducting it in laboratories (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968).


Emotional Intelligence (EQ) as a concept was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990) as a kind of social intelligence, distinct from general intelligence. It refers to the capacity to track one’s personal emotions and that of others, distinguish between them and make use of this information as a reference for one’s behaviour, actions or views. EQ was soon extended to include an individual’s capacity to accurately perceive, assess and express emotions; the capacity to understand and appreciate emotions; and the capacity to regulate these emotions in order to spur emotional, as well as intellectual, development (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). From this, one can see that the concept had evolved through time to encompass many emotional facets, as well as their relationship with other forms of human intelligence. Given this extensive definition, there is no question that EQ can play a pivotal role in the behaviour, perceptions and dispositions of individuals within organisations and as professionals and employees. There are many measures to assess a person’s EQ reflecting the differences among academics and experts on how EQ is treated and analysed. Among these tests are Emotional Quotient Inventory or the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test and the Mayer-Salovey- Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Harms & Crede, 2010).

The novelty of the idea behind EQ made it an interesting subject of inquiry in the field of management and organisational studies. Due to the far reaching coverage and implications of EQ for organisations across industries and nature of work, many scholars and researchers had attempted to study EQ in an attempt to better understand its dynamics and how it can be harnessed by organisations to their advantage. Goleman (1998) popularised the concept of EQ initially espoused by Salovey and Mayer (1990). He came to define the concept as the ability to recognise one’s feelings and that of others to motivate one’s self and to manage these emotions personally and in the course of one’s interaction with others. He formulated a theory on EQ that is directly tied to performance since he believes that EQ has direct bearing in work and organisational effectiveness, in particular in forecasting performance in different activities from sales to top leadership (Goleman, 1998).

Bar-On (1997) defined EQ as an umbrella concept comprising non-cognitive abilities and competencies which aid one in overcoming environmental pressures and demands. He advanced a model of non-cognitive intelligences made up of five broad areas from the personality domain, including intra-personal and inter-personal capacities, ability to adapt, stress management and general mood, such as happiness and optimism. On the part of companies, this illustrates relevance of managing and tapping the EQ of their personnel. Because these domains have a bearing on the outlook of employees and how they will respond to the demands of work, as well as changes within organisations, interest in EQ heightened.

While there are people who have a higher innate emotional quotient than others, EQ skills can be learned and honed through steady commitment, dedication and practice. For this to happen, one must have a sustained drive to learn, obtain relevant feedback and continuously buttress their EQ abilities (Serrat, 2009). Indeed, EQ is becoming a new benchmark or yardstick by which employees and prospective candidates for new posts are assessed. People are not just rated for their intelligence, training, work experience, and industry expertise, but also for their ability to handle and manage their emotions within themselves and in the course of their interaction with their co-workers (Serrat, 2009).

While studies on the implications of EQ in various sectors, such as health, education and clinical psychology, had been made, EQ’s applications on the workplace generated the greatest amount of inquiry (Jordan, Ashkanasy, & Ascough, 2007). This can be attributed to the desire on the part of organisations to search for new ways to enhance performance, as well as the growing desire of managers to be able to forecast or assess the behaviour of their subordinates in the actual work setting (Jordan, et al, 2007). The promising benefits and advantages offered by EQ, therefore, attracted the attention of many companies and organisations.

It would be in the great interest of organisations to tap into their employees’ EQ and marshal this tremendous force to advance their company’s well being. Improved sales, enhanced recruitment and retention of highly qualified and competent staff and more effective leadership are among the promises of EQ (Serrat, 2009). Therefore, possessing a great degree of EQ proves to be a great advantage. Weisinger (1998) pointed out that people with high EQ levels are said to enjoy more success in their chosen careers. In turn, this idea of self-fulfilment, happiness and contentment with one’s work is a great motivating factor for employees to excel in their work. Jordan et al (2002) noted that such people also experience less job insecurity compared to those with lower EQ levels. This job insecurity would then act as a de-motivator, contributing to the subpar performance of affected personnel. Jordan et al (2002) also found out that an employee’s commitment to an organisation is moderated by his or her emotional intelligence; hence those with high EQ are more likely to have high affective commitment even at times of extreme work pressure or stress. EQ was also revealed to be positively connected with altruism, job commitment and satisfaction and affective organisational commitment (Carmeli, 2003). Carmeli (2003) also maintained that EQ can improve contextual performance and reduce distress allowing employees to think and act in a more emotionally intelligent manner. Wong and Law (2002) supported the claim of a positive linkage between EQ and organisational commitment and added that EQ can mitigate turnover intention of subordinates. EQ aids in organisational effectiveness not only through enhanced work commitment, but also through boosting morale, teamwork and improved health (Cherniss, 2001). Thus, it makes sense to say that people with high EQ constitute a pool of worthy and much coveted labour force.

Aside from reinforcing commitment to the profession and the company, EQ also had an effect on inter-personal relationships. It was said that people with greater EQ are more likely to develop harmonious relations with their peers in the workplace (Maslow, 1943). This is because such individuals can recognise, understand and manage their emotions and that of others, enabling them to interact with their colleagues well (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). According to Lopes et al (2005), EQ was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity and pro-social inclinations. The connection between EQ and positive peer nomination, as well as identification of reciprocal friendships, was also established was also established by this study. From this, it can be said that there is a strong case for a linkage between EQ and interpersonal skills and relationship management.

In addition, Slaski and Cartwright (2002) also argued that higher EQ enable individuals to easily adjust to stress, because of their better coping mechanisms (Bar-On, Brown, Kirkcaldy, & Thome, 2000). EQ training was also found to contribute in more positive perceptions of work life quality and reduced distress, aside from increasing morale (Slaski & Cartwright, 2003). This is very important as the demands of work may really exact a toll on employees. Getting people with greater resilience and tolerance to such pressures and demands, as well as having a clear perspective on what is expected of them, is definitely a key strategy in cornering the right human assets for the organisation. Finally, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004), in a meta-analysis study, revealed a positive association between EQ and performance in the workplace, as well as in the school. In terms of team performance, high EQ teams were found to perform at a high level even without training, while teams with low EQ have to undergo specific trainings to attain the same performance level of their high EQ counterparts (Jordan & Troth, 2002). Such an edge can be attributed to the emotional element present in team decision making putting teams with high EQ in a clear advantage (Jordan & Troth, 2004). In another study, it was stated that EQ constitutes a crucial element in customer interaction, especially among service-oriented employees, thus EQ also has bearing on enhancing customer satisfaction experience (Rozell, Pettijohn, & Parker, 2002). Given this, there is no question that the attention EQ is getting from organisations scholars is valid and very much warranted.

Studies also show that people with higher EQ have good conflict resolution competencies. This can partly stem from the assertion that all conflicts are emotional in nature since they involve views of threats or risks to individual or organisational objectives (Jordan & Troth, 2004). Weisinger (1998) pointed out that conflict management and improving relations within organisations require adept emotional management strengths. This makes it imperative for companies to train their managers on EQ so that they will be more equipped in handling tensions or differences among their employees in the workplace. Higher EQ confers on employees a greater capacity to deal with pesky superiors at work through better conflict resolution capabilities (Lubit, 2004). This makes it sensible to develop the EQ not only of managers, but also of employees so that they can better deal with differences they may have with their bosses and so that such conflicts may not stand in the way of them fulfilling their designated duties and responsibilities. When faced by conflict, people with greater EQ are more inclined to adopt collaborative solutions and select not to avoid the issue as collaboration attests to their capacity to appreciate and control their emotions (Jordan & Troth, 2002). In his EQ model, Goleman (2001) included conflict management as one critical competency. This underpins the connection between EQ and conflict resolution. Similarly, in terms of negotiations, people with higher EQ were also found to lay down better positive affective tone from the onset paving the way for integrative resolutions (Foo, Anger Elfenbein, Tan, & Aik, 2004).

While there is much literature on the definition and underpinnings of EQ, as well as its benefits and advantages when applied in the workplace, there are not many studies available on EQ’s impact on Cybercriminal investigation. However, the fact that most of the studies have the general office setup as context may lend credence to the applicability of these researches in Cybercriminal investigation. Besides, the investigation task is packed with demands and pressures and is also emotionally laden given its sensitivity and intricacies, the number of stakeholders involved and the importance of forensic investigation.

Crime scene investigation is a gruelling task that entails a lot of considerations. As such, investigators are exposed to a lot of pressure, intimidation, opposition in their daily lives in the office. This highlights the importance of having a tough EQ on the part of those involved in this delicate job. Competency is not enough as it is essential for investigators to work with people and enjoy the respect of others. The environments where investigators operate are full of emotions from helpful to uncooperative clients to colleagues who may send out negative or positive emotional responses. Emotions are known to affect judgment (Chung, Cohen, & Monroe, 2012). Because investigators perform a very crucial task of identifying and analysing evidence, efforts must be extended to ensure that their work is not compromised, as this would have serious legal, business and regulatory repercussions.


Psychological profiling is mostly used in solving murder cases (Reyes & Wiles, 2007). However, according to Lickiewicz (2011), psychological profiling is also applicable to Cybercrimes. He added that profiling, although not meant to specifically identity the perpetrator, can help narrow down the search area, improve the law enforcement’s future investigation, create better approach or measures in detection and provide familiarity of the perpetrator based on his modus operandi (Lickiewicz, 2011). Gierowski & Najda (2010) pointed out that being able to experience and gather knowledge about such illegal activities would help interpret and analyse the evidence collected. From this, analysis of evidence will enable the authorities in profiling the offender. The analysis of evidence and the modus operandi is an inference on the psychological mind frame, motivation and behaviour of the perpetrator (Grance, Chevalier, & Kent, 2005).

According to Rogers (2006), the offenders of cybercrimes depend on the internet’s capability to cover their identities, thus their actions highly hinge on Anonymity. However, there is no causal connection with their anonymity in the conduct of crimes, modus operandi, motivation or the traces they leave in the scene of the crime (Rogers, 2006). McQuade (2009) added that offenders have their own way of breaking in and committing cybercrime through their own techniques or using applications or software. But because cybercrimes are frequently committed in sequence, there is a high likelihood of identifying the profile of the offender (Arkin, 2001).

Erbschloe (2001) asserted that there is a need to establish profiles of offenders of cybercrimes especially those that are considered to be terrorist attacks in the internet world because these individuals are becoming a serious threat to the security and privacy in the internet. Casey (1999) distinguished the types of investigation in cybercrime cases into two scenarios. One scenario is where the identity of the offender is unknown. The second scenario is where both the crime and offender is identifiable such as the case of child pornography, where the mere possession of such files is considered a crime (Casey, 1999).

According to Rogers (2001), the creation of a profile must first have data analysis in order to synthesize the possible persons to be identified as main suspects. Schell and Martin (2006) posited that the person investigating must be able to define the scale of ability of the offender, his skills and his motive in doing such crime. It is important that in making a profile, it must contain data indicating the possible sites where the offender can be found such as discussion groups, social media or Internet Relay Chat channels. In addition to this, there must be a careful analysis of the victim’s behaviour displayed in the internet and correlate his actions to his attack on the victim. One should also thoroughly analyse a victim’s actions on the Internet and find the reason for the attack on the victim. This way, a more detailed and specific profile is made in order that the offender’s future offense can be predicted and a trap can be set up (Schell & Martin, 2006). Pleskonjić et al (2006) also added that in building up a profile, it would be of immense value to estimate the age of the offender because it will be able to assert his motives, cultural behaviour and goals. Cultural behaviour is a vital element that can be influencing his/ her behaviour and with that, through psycholinguistic methods, his/ her future attacks can be predicted.

Casey (1999) emphasized the importance of profiling the offender and identifying his/ her behaviour and motivations. Doing so could give possible signs and clues of the place where the offender might be. Shaw (2006) suggested that in doing such profiling, there must be a group of experts specializing in security, laws and information technology. Shaw (2006) did not state the need for the participation of psychologists but he stressed that law enforcement agencies must not be involved in the profiling for such profile to be useful.


Despite all the developments in Forensic Psychology, it is still a fairly new area of psychology. The application of psychology in criminal proceedings involves various risks. Forensic Psychologists are therefore required to consider effective tools in identifying known and hidden behavioural characteristics. This has led to the move towards various Projective Psychological Tests described in this paper. Forensic and legal psychology is incomplete without delving into the unknown space of unconscious behaviour.

While forensic departments in certain countries have started using Projective Psychological Tests, there is an inherent risk of subjective interpretations. This is one reason why it has not gained worldwide acceptance. With so little of the unknown human drivers for action known, it is argued that additional information revealed through Projective Tests could prove valuable in certain cases. Forensic Psychology could, therefore, embrace Projective Tests as part of behavioural assessment.

The status of forensic psychology can be increased by quality research and realizing that there are areas in which the contribution of forensic psychologists is questionable (Louw, 2001). There is a huge gap in terms of competence building and knowledge transfer related to the application of Projective Testing in different scenarios. Perhaps relevant authorities could consider training programs and sharing lessons learnt from various investigations.


  1. AllPsych. (2018). The Basis for Projective Techniques. Retrieved 2018 from
  2. Arkin, O. (2001). Tracing hackers: A concept for tracing and profiling malicious computer attackers. Computer Fraud & Security , 8-11.
  3. Baer, D., Wolf, M., & Risley, R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 91-97.
  4. Bar-On, R., Brown, J. M., Kirkcaldy, B. D., & Thome, E. P. (2000). Emotional expression and implications for occupational stress; an application of the emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i). Personality and Individual Differences , 28, 1107-18.
  5. Behavior Analyst Certification Board. (2017). About Behavioral Analysis. Retrieved February 6, 2017 from Behavior Analyst Certification Board:
  6. Bornstein, R. F. (2007). Might the Rorschach Be a Projective Test After All? Social Projection of an Undesired Trait Alters Rorschach Oral Dependency Scores. Journal of Personality Assessment , 88 (3), 354-367.
  7. Cariola, L. A. (2014). Assessing the alternate-form reliability of interview-based and web-based Rorschach responses measuring body boundary imagery and regressive imagery. Rorschachiana , 35, 42-65.
  8. Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology , 18, 788-813.
  9. Casey, E. (1999). Cyberpatterns: Criminal Behaviour on the Internet. In B. Turvey, Criminal Profiling. An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. San Diego: Academic Press.
  10. Cherniss, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness. In C. Cherniss, & D. Goleman, The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace (pp. 27–44). San Fransisco: Jossey Bass.
  11. Chung, J., Cohen, J., & Monroe, G. S. (2012). The Influence of Ethical Conflict and Emotion on Auditors’ Inventory Judgments. Retrieved 2016 from
  12. Costanzo, M. A. (2013). Using forensic psychology to teach basic psychological processes: eyewitness memory and lie detection. Teaching of Psychology , 40 (2).
  13. Erbschloe, M. (2001). Information warfare. How to survive cyberattacks. New York: McGraw Hill.
  14. Foo, M. D., Anger Elfenbein, H., Tan, H. H., & Aik, V. C. (2004). Emotional intelligence and negotiation: the tension between creating and claiming value. International Journal of Conflict Management , 15, 411–436.
  15. Gierowski, J. K., & Najda, M. (2010). Podstawowa problematyka psychologiczna w procesie karnym. In J. K. Gierowski, & T. Jaśkiewicz-Obydzińska, Psychologia w postępowaniu karnym. Warszawa: Lexis Nexis.
  16. Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review , 76, 93-102.
  17. Grance, T., Chevalier, S., & Kent, K. (2005). Guide to computer and network data analysis: applying forensic techniques to incident response. Gaithersburg: computer Security Division.
  18. Harms, P. D., & Crede, M. (2010). Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies , 17 (1), 5–17.
  19. Hatano, Y., Yamada, M., Nakagawa, K., Nanri, H., Kawase, M., & Kenji, F. (2014). Using drawing tests to explore the multidimensional psychological aspects of children with cancer. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology , 44 (10), 1009–1012.
  20. Ioannou, m., Canter, D., Youngs, D., & Synnott, J. (2015). Offenders’ crime narratives across different types of crimes. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice , 15 (5), 383-400.
  21. Jordan, P. J., & Troth, A. C. (2002). Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution: Implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources , 4, 62-79.
  22. Jordan, P. J., & Troth, A. C. (2004). Managing Emotions During Team Problem Solving: EI and Conflict Resolution. Human Performance , 17, 195-218.
  23. Jordan, P. J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Ascough, K. (2007). Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Behavior and Industrial-Organizational Psychology. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts, The science of emotional intelligence (pp. 356-375). New York: Oxford University Press.
  24. Lickiewicz, J. (2011). Cybercrim Psychology – Proposal of an Offender Psychological Profile. Problems of Forensic Sciences , 239-252.
  25. Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., Cote, S., & Beers, M. (2005). Emotion regulation abilities and the quality of social interaction. Emotion , 5 (1), 113-118.
  26. Louw, D. (2001). Forensic Psychology. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences , 5745-5750.
  27. Lubit, R. H. (2004). Coping with toxic managers, subordinates, and other impossible people. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Prentice Hall.
  28. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review , 50, 370–396.
  29. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications for Educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.
  30. McQuade, S. C. (2009). Encyclopedia of Cybercrime. London: Greenwood Press.
  31. Miller, J. (2015). Dredging and projecting the depths of personality: The Thematic Apperception Test and the narratives of the unconscious. Of Means and Ends: Mind and Brain Science in the Twentieth Century , 28 (1), 9-30.
  32. Neal, T. M. (2016). Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them? Retrieved 2018 from
  33. Patel, A. P. (2013). Person of Issue: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). The International Journal of Indian Psychology , 1 (1).
  34. Pleskonjić, D., Milutinović, V., & Maček, N. (2006). Psychological profile of network intruder. Conference IPSI, (pp. 23-26). Amalfi, Italy.
  35. Reyes, A., & Wiles, J. (2007). Best damn cybercrime and digital forensic book. Burlington: Syngress Publishing.
  36. Rogers, M. (2001). A social learning theory and moral disengagement analysis of criminal computer behaviour: an exploratory study. Manitoba: University of Manitoba.
  37. Rogers, M. (2006). The development of a meaningful hacker taxonomy: A two dimensional approach. Digital Investigations , 97–102.
  38. Rozell, E. J., Pettijohn, C. E., & Parker, R. S. (2002). An empirical evaluation of emotional intelligence: The impact on management development. The Journal of Management Development , 21, 272-289.
  39. Schell, B., & Martin, C. (2006). Webster’s New World Hacker Dictionary, . Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc.
  40. Serrat, O. (2009, June). Understanding and Developing Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved 2016 from Asian Development Bank Knowledge Solutions:
  41. Shaw, E. (2006). The role of behavioral research and profiling in malicious cyber insider investigation. Digital Investigation , 20-31.
  42. Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2003). Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health , 19, 233-239.
  43. Sloane, H. (1992). What is Behaviour Analysis? From Behavior Science of the Rockies:
  44. Trygg, L., Dåderman, A. M., Wiklund, N., Meurling, A. W., Lindgren, M., Lidberg, L., et al. (2001). Using projective tests in forensic psychiatry may lead to wrong conclusions. Only empirically tested tests should be used. Lakartidningen , 98 (26-27), 3118-23.
  45. Van Rooy, D., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior , 65, 71-95.
  46. Weisinger, H. (1998). Emotional Intelligence at Work. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  47. Zaffaroni, E. R., & Oliveir, E. (2013). Criminology and Criminal Policy Movements. UK: University Press of America.





Research suggests that any child including yours might turn into the most wanted criminal tomorrow. It’s more than likely that an adult serial killer or any other adult criminal has had an abnormal, dysfunctional and inappropriate mental process during his or her childhood (Slot & Hoeve, 2016). You might be breeding future potential criminals if you fail to help your child form meaningful bonds, fail to address predictors of violence at an early age, fail to address externalizing behaviour, fail to address certain personality traits at early childhood that are linked to malevolent behaviour and criminality; fail to instil self-control during childhood, and help the child learn to challenge cognitive distortions.


Aggression, crime, and hyperactivity are collectively referred to as externalizing behaviour. Aggression is a conduct disorder consisting of verbal or physical behaviours that threaten to harm or harm others, including animals, adults and children. This externalizing behaviour may be self-protective and appropriate or destructive to others and self (Foshee & Bauman, 1992). Studies have identified this externalizing behaviour to strongly predict adult violence and crime and convictions (Moffitt, 1993). For example, aggressive behaviours at ages 6 to 13 are thought to predict later violence among boys. Studies have also revealed that continuity in the child’s antisocial behaviour predicts aggression, which predict later violent crime (Loeber & Hay, 1996). In another study involving African American boys, McCord and Ensminger (1995), found that nearly 50% of 6-year-olds who were identified with aggressive and hyperactivity behaviours were arrested for committing violent crimes at age 33. On the contrary, only one-third of the non-aggressive boys were arrested for the same crimes (McCord & Ensminger, 1995).

Crime is a heterogeneous concept reflecting diverse antisocial actions, including robbery, drug use, violence, vandalism, burglary and theft (Achenbach, 1978). Like aggression, crime in early childhood is believed to predict adult violence, crime and convictions (Tolan & Thomas, 1995). In addition, early onset of crime and violence has been linked to more chronic and serious violence (Tolan & Thomas, 1995). In Farrington’s (1995) study, one-half of boys aged between 10 and 16 initiated into early violence and crime were convicted of committing violent crimes by age 25. Conversely, only 8% of Juveniles aged from 10 to 16 were not initiated early in crime were convicted of crimes at age 25.

Hyperactivity is a conduct and externalizing behaviour. Children with this disorder are seriously impaired. These children have social adjustment problems in adulthood. They are more likely to grow into psychopaths, an antisocial behaviour characterized by blunted affect, lack of guilt and remorse, attention problems, irresponsible behaviour and impulsivity (Ou & Reynolds, 2010). This antisocial behaviour and other problems predispose these children to violence and crime later in life.


A child’s personality has been identified as a factor that predisposes him or her to violence and crime in adulthood. The three personality traits, which are captured in Eynseck’s PEN model, namely Psychoticism, Extraversion and Neuroticism, have been linked to criminality (Romero, Luengo, & Sobral, 2001; Robinson, 2004). For example, Daderman (1999) revealed that delinquents had higher score in PEN variables compared to the control group (non-delinquents).

Again, neuroticism scores are thought to reflect antisocial behaviour, impulsive behaviour and emotional instability (Blackburn, 1993). Individuals with psychoticism personality traits are characterized by hostility, cruelty, low empathy, impulsivity, socialization deficit, aggressiveness, and psychopathy (Blackburn, 1993). These characteristics are identified with delinquents and criminals (Blackburn, 1993). High scores of neuroticism and psychoticism have also been associated with juvenile crime, which is thought to predict criminal behaviour later in life. Others studies have positively related juvenile crime with extraversion and psychoticism (Heaven, 1996).

High Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) scores have been associated with criminal behaviour. It is argued that individuals with high score of ImpSS are used to social unacceptable and risky activities. This involvement in criminal activities arises from sensation seeking and searching for high arousal (Buker, 2011). For example, studies (Cernovsky, O’Reilly, & Pennington, 1997; Zuckerman, Ball, & Black, 1990) have positively associated sensation seeking criminal and imprudent behaviours including risky sexual behaviour, illicit drug abuse, alcohol abuse and smoking.


Lack of self-control has been found to predict a child’s violent behaviour later in life (Buker, 2011). Evidence from criminological, sociological and psychological literature have suggested an association between low-self-control and deviant or criminal behaviour (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990; Payne, Higgins, & Blackwell, 2010). In fact, it is believed that poor self-control is the key cause of delinquent and criminal behaviour later in life (Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990).


Cognitive Distortions (CDs) are biases or inaccurate ways of conferring or attending meaning on experiences (Barriga, Landau, Stinson, Liau, & Gibbs, 2000). These distortions are represented with “minimisations”, “antisocial attitudes”, “justifications” “criminal thinking style”, “rationalisations”, “Self-Serving Cognitive Distortions (SSCD)” and “Social Cognition” (Walters, 1995; Abel et al., 1989; Murphy, 1990). Social-cognitive theories provide that CD makes individuals to block their moral judgements with a view to justify their avoidance of responsibility for own attitudinal and behavioural problems (Kamaluddin, Shariff, Nurfarliza, Othman, Ismail, & Mat Saat, 2014). Criminology literature has also suggested that CDs may contribute to problematic behavioural and emotional responses, which may ultimately lead to deviant and criminal behaviour (Gendreau, Little, & Goggin, 1996). Elsewhere SSCD has identified as criminogenic and antisocial attitudes that insulate individuals from a negative self-concept or blame (Barriga et al., 2000).


Psychologists have identified predictors of violence at an early age and grouped them into five: individual including factors, family factors, school factors, peer-related factors, neighbourhood and community factors. Individual factors include physical, medical, aggressiveness, internalizing disorders, attitudes and beliefs favourable to antisocial or deviant behaviours; involvement in anti-social behaviours, concentration problems, hyperactivity, risk taking, and restlessness; early initiation violence behaviours; low resting hear rate and internalizing disorders. Family factors include child maltreatment, parental attitude favouring violence or substance use, parent-child separation, family conflict and poor family bonding, low level of involvement of parent in children development, parental criminality and poor family management practices. School factors include low bonding to school, academic failure, dropping out of school and truancy and frequent school transitions. Peer-related factors include gang membership, delinquent peers, and criminal siblings. Neighbourhood and community factors include community disorganization, poverty, neighbourhood adults engaged in crime, availability of firearms and drugs, exposure to racial prejudice and violence (Shader, 2004).

Violence in your child’s life is predicted by delivery trauma and prenatal. Kandel and Mednick (1991) found an association between delivery and pregnancy complications and violence.

Low resting heart rate indicates an under arousal or fearless temperament, which is believed to predispose a person to violence and aggression (Farrington, 1998). Farrington (1998) found low resting pulse rate to predict violent crime. This suggests that a child with a low resting heart rate, or one who had delivery and pregnancy complications may be predisposed to violent behaviour and crime.

Evidence from meta-analysis confirms a correlation between risk-taking, concentration problems, restlessness, and hyperactivity and later violent behaviours. In a longitudinal study, Klinteberg et al. (1993) found that boys with concentration difficulties and restlessness were more likely than those without these characteristics to be arrested for engaging in criminal activities. Fifteen per cent (15%) of boys with concentration difficulties and restlessness at age 13 were convicted of committing crime at 26. Similarly, Farrington (1989) found that male students with restlessness and concentration problems, including frequent talkativeness, the tendency to fidget and difficulty sitting still, were likely to engage in violence and crime later in life. Academic difficulties were found in children with concentration problems, which also predicted later violence.

Attitudes favourable to violence, anti-social attitudes and beliefs, hostility towards police, and dishonesty have been shown to predict later violence among young males (Williams, 1994). Williams (1994) suggested that intervention programs aimed at helping young males to develop standards and positive beliefs could enable them to reject cheating, rule breaking and minimize the risk of violence.

Studies have associated the involvement of a child in antisocial behaviours, notably drug selling, property destruction, stealing, early sexual intercourse, smoking and self-reported crime, with increased risk of violence (Zingraff, Leiter, Myers, & Johnson, 1993).

Parental criminality has have been found to predict child criminality at later stages of life. Farrington (1989) found boys whose parents were convicted of crime before their 10th birthday to be more likely to engage in violent crimes than boys whose parents did not have a criminal record. Similarly, Baker and Mednick (1984) revealed men aged between 18 and 23 with criminal parents to be 3-8 times more likely than those with non-criminal parents to have been convicted of criminal acts. (Baker & Mednick, 1984)

Neglect, sexual abuse and physical abuse are forms of child maltreatment that have been linked to violent crimes. Evidence shows that neglected or physically abused children are more likely than other children to commit violent acts in their later lives (Smith & Thornberry, 1995; Zingraff et al., 1993).

Studies have linked family management practices namely parental failure to create behavioural expectations for children, poor supervision, inconsistent and severe discipline, and poor monitoring to substance abuses and crime in later life. Supporting this assertion, Wells and Rankin (1988) noted that children from strict parents committed more violent crimes compared to those with permissive parents. Conversely, children whose parents were neither too lax nor too strict were least violent. Similarly, children whose parents inconsistently punished them, ignored the same behaviour or sometimes punished them were more likely than others whose parents consistently punished them to commit violent offenses. Parental harshness and punitiveness were also found to predict later violence. In another study, it was revealed that poor child-rearing; poor parental supervision; authoritarian parenting style, parental disagreement about childrearing, a cruel neglectful or passive parenting attitude, and harsh parental discipline, all predicted children involvement in crime later in life (Farrington, 1995).

It has been suggested that strong parental involvement into child development is a protective factor against crime and violence. On the contrary, less parental involvement and interaction in child development may predict future involvement in crime (Williams, 1994). As revealed by Williams (1994), parent-child involvement and communication at age 14 reduced the self-reported criminal behaviours at age 16.

Research suggests that parent-child separation disrupts parent-child relationships and predicts violent behaviour later in life. Henry et al. (1996) indicated that children with a single parent at age 13 predicted their involvement in crime by age 18.

School factors such as low interest in education, low educational achievement, poor-quality schools, truancy, and dropping out of school contributed to later violent and criminal behaviour (Maguin & Loeber, 1996; Hawkins, Farrington & Catalano, 1998).

Denno (1990) revealed that poor academic achievement in school predicted later crime. It was also revealed that academic failure in school increased one’s risk for later crime and violent behaviour (Maguin, Hawkins, Catalano, Hill, Abbott, & Herrenkohl, 1995).

It was revealed by Farrington (1989) that a child at age 10 growing with delinquent siblings is likely to have later convictions for crime and violence. Similarly, Maguin et al. (1995) confirmed a strong association between later conviction for crime and violence and having delinquent siblings and that that antisocial siblings strongly influence other adolescence siblings. It was also confirmed by Moffitt (1993) that adolescents whose peers did not approve of delinquent behaviour had a low likelihood of committing crime acts. Elsewhere, gang membership is believed to predict later crime (Battin, Hill, Abbott, Catalano, & Hawkins, 1998).

Lastly, neighbourhood and community factors, including community disorganization, low neighbourhood attachment, poverty, the availability of firearms and drugs, frequent media portrayal of violence, exposure to racial prejudice and violence, and norms and laws favourable to violence may predict later violence and crime (Brewer et al., 1995; Sampson & Lauritsen, 1994; Henry et al., 1996).


The factors that predispose your child to crime and violence later in life and the causal factors that underlie the problem can be conceptualized using a biosocial model. This model proposes a relationship between predictors of violence and outcome. In this case, biological and psychological risk factors during a child’s prenatal period give rise to factors that predict violence and crime later in life. This suggests that psychological and biological risk factors influence the tendency of committing crime and involvement in violence later in life (Stoff, Breiling, & Maser, 1997).


The Biosocial Model has biological personality traits as its first component. During the perinatal and prenatal period, these risk factors include both maternal and genetic pathophysiological factors that affect the development and growth of the foetus. These factors include illness during pregnancy, maternal malnutrition, using alcohol and drugs, smoking during pregnancy, birth complications and a genetic predisposition to risks factors from the father and mother. Of importance are the Foetal Alcohol Syndrome and other factors such as Corpus Collosum that leads to the neural maldevelopment of the foetus (Stoff, Breiling, & Maser, 1997). Tobacco use during pregnancy directly affects the central nervous system’s structures while complications during pregnancy may injure the central nervous system of the new-born leading to enhanced maladaptive behaviours and other externalizing behaviours (Orlebeke, Knol, & Verhulst, 1997).


Psychosocial risk factors constitute the second element of the Biosocial Interaction Model. These risk factors are social and psychological in nature and occur during early childhood. These factors can be conceptualized as not biological and include high psychosocial stress, teenage pregnancy, poverty, negative attitude during pregnancy, and psychiatric factors (i.e., alcohol and drug abuse) (Curran, White, & Hansell, 2000).


In conclusion, the dynamics of crime and violence are best captured from the developmental approach (adolescence). This approach recognizes the change of behaviour over time. At this time of the child development, your child might experience tumultuous change, which could make them vulnerable; leading to increased means and frequency of expression of risky behaviours, including violence and others.

Aggression, crime, and hyperactivity predict adult violence and crime. Similarly, antisocial behaviour, emotional instability, a lack of self-control among adolescents should be treated as red alerts. Parents need to realize the importance of influence of the family, the school and the community in their child’s life. In fact, the mother’s behaviour and substance addictions during pregnancy have also been identified as risk factors.

For this reason, if you want to avoid breeding future potential criminals, target every stage stage of development – from prenatal to adolescence. Knowing what can negatively impact your child and taking meaningful actions to prevent them for happening is the best thing you can do for your child’s future.


1.Abel, G. G., Gore, D. K., Holland, C. L., Camp, N., Becker, J. V., & Rathner, J. (1989). The measurement of the cognitive distortions of child molesters. Annals of Sex Research , 2, 135−153.

2.Achenbach, T. M. (1978). The child behavior profile: I. Boys aged 6–11. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 46, 478–488.

3.Baker, R. L., & Mednick, B. R. (1984). Influences on Human Development: A Longitudinal Perspective. Boston, MA: Kluwer-Nijhoff.

4.Barriga, A. Q., Landau, J. R., Stinson, B. L., Liau, A. K., & Gibbs, J. C. (2000). Cognitive distortion and problem behaviors in adolescents. Criminal Justice and Behavior , 27, 333–343.

5.Battin, S. R., Hill, K. G., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1998). The contribution of gang membership to crime beyond delinquent friends. Criminology , 36, 93–115.

6.Blackburn, R. (1993). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct: Theory, Research and Practice. Chichester: John Wiley.

7.Brewer, D. D., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Neckerman, H. J. (1995). Preventing serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offending: A review of evaluations of selected strategies in childhood, adolescence, and the community. In J. C. Howell, B. Krisberg, J. D. Hawkins, & J. J. Wilson, Sourcebook on Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders. Thousand Oaks.

8.Buker, H. (2011). Formation of self-control: Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime and beyond. Aggression and Violent Behaviour , 16, 265–276.

9.Cernovsky, Z. Z., O’Reilly, R. L., & Pennington, M. (1997). Sensation Seeking Scales and consumer satisfaction with a substance abuse treatment program. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 53, 779-784.

10.Curran, G. M., White, H. R., & Hansell, S. (2000). Personality, environment, and problem drug use. Journal of Drug Issues , 30, 375–405.

11.Daderman, A. M. (1999). Differences between severely conduct-disordered juvenile males and normal juvenile males: the study of personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences , 26, 827–845.

12.Denno, D. W. (1990). Biology and Violence: From Birth to Adulthood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

13.Farrington, D. P. (1989). Early predictors of adolescent aggression and adult violence. Violence and Victims , 4, 79–100.

14.Farrington, D. P. (1995). Key issues in the integration of motivational and opportunity-reducing crime prevention strategies. In P. O. Wikström, R. V. Clarke, & J. McCord, Integrating Crime Prevention Strategies: Propensity and Opportunity (pp. 333–357). Stockholm, Sweden: National Council for Crime Prevention.

15.Farrington, D. P. (1998). Predictors, causes and correlates of male youth violence. Crime and Justice , 24.

16.Foshee, V., & Bauman, K. E. (1992). Parental and peer characteristics as modifiers of the bond-behaviour relationship: An elaboration of control theory. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 33 (1), 66–76.

17.Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology , 34 (4), 575–608.

18.Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. A. (1990). General Theory of Crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

19.Hawkins, J. D., Arthur, M. W., & Catalano, R. F. (1995). Preventing substance abuse. In Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention. In M. Tonry, & D. P. Farrington, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research (Vol. 19, pp. 343–427). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

20.Hawkins, J. D., Farrington, D. P., & Catalano, R. F. (1998). Reducing violence through the schools. In D. S. Elliott, B. A. Hamburg, & K. R. Williams, Violence in American Schools: A New Perspective (pp. 188–216). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

21.Heaven, P. (1996). Personality and selfreported crime: Analysis of the “Big Five” personality dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences , 20, 47–54.

22.Henry, B., Avshalom, C., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and non-violent criminal convictions: Age 3 to age 18. Developmental Psychology , 32, 614–623.

23.Kamaluddin, M., Shariff, N. S., Nurfarliza, S., Othman, A., Ismail, K. H., & Mat Saat, G. A. (2014). Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers. Malaysian J Pathol , 36 (1), 41–50.

24.Kandel, E., & Mednick, S. A. (1991). Perinatal complications predict violent offending. Criminology , 29, 519–529.

25.Klinteberg, B. A., Andersson, T., Magnusson, D., & Stattin, H. (1993). Hyperactive behavior in childhood as related to subsequent alcohol problems and violent offending: A longitudinal study of male subjects. Personality and Individual Differences , 15, 381–388.

26.Loeber, R., & Hay, D. F. (1996). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology , 48, 371–410.

27.Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and crime. In M. Tonry, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research (Vol. 20, pp. 145–264). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

28.Maguin, E., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Hill, K., Abbott, R., & Herrenkohl, T. (1995). Risk factors measured at three ages for violence at age 17–18. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology. Boston, MA.

29.McCord, J., & Ensminger, M. (1995). Path-ways from aggressive childhood to criminality. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology. Boston, MA.

30.Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review , 100, 674–701.

31.Murphy, W. D. (1990). Assessment and Modification of Cognitive Distortions in Sex Offenders. In W. L. Marshall, D. R. Laws, & H. E. Barbaree, Handbook of Sexual Assault. Applied Clinical Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer.

32.Orlebeke, J. F., Knol, D. L., & Verhulst, F. C. (1997). Increase in child behaviour problems resulting from maternal smoking during pregnancy. Archives of Environmental Health , 52, 317–321.

33.Ou, S., & Reynolds, A. (2010). Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime. Child Youth Serv , 32 (8), 1097–1107.

34.Payne, B. K., Higgins, G. E., & Blackwell, B. S. (2010). Exploring the link between selfcontrol and partner violence: Bad parenting or general criminals. Journal of Criminal Justice .

35.Robinson, M. B. (2004). Why crime? An Integrated Systems Theory of Antisocial Behaviour. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

36.Romero, E., Luengo, M., & Sobral, J. (2001). Angeles Personality and antisocial behaviour: Study of temperamental dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences , 31, 329–348.

37.Sampson, R., & Lauritsen, J. (1994). Violent victimization and offending: Individual-, situationa-, and community-level risk factors. In A. J. Reiss, & J. A. Roth, Understanding and Preventing Violence (Vol. 3, pp. 1-114). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

38.Shader, M. (2004). Risk Factors for Delinquency: An Overview. Retrieved 2017 from US Department of Justice:

39.Slot, W. N., & Hoeve, M. (2016). Tomorrow’s Criminals: The Development of Child Delinquency and Effective Interventions. Routledge.

40.Smith, C., & Thornberry, T. P. (1995). The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent involvement in crime. Criminology , 33, 451–481.

41.Stoff, D., Breiling, J., & Maser, J. (1997). Handbook of antisocial behaviour. New York: Wiley.

42.Tolan, P. H., & Thomas, P. (1995). The implications of age of onset for crime risk: II. Longitudinal data. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology , 23, 157–181.

43.Walters, G. D. (1995). The psychological inventory of criminal thinking styles, Part I: Reliability and preliminary validity. Criminal Justice and Behaviour , 22, 307-325.

44.Wells, L. E., & Rankin, J. H. (1998). Direct parental controls and delinquency. Criminology , 26, 263–285.

45.Williams, J. H. (1994). Understanding sub-stance use, crime involvement, and juvenile justice system involvement among African-American and European-American adolescents. Unpublished dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

46.Zingraff, M. T., Leiter, J., Myers, K. A., & Johnson, M. (1993). Child maltreatment and youthful problem behaviour. Criminology , 31, 173–202.

Translate »